The project of the first Russian UDC has undergone noticeable external changes

The project of the first Russian UDC has undergone noticeable external changes

Project 23900 amphibious assault ships are considered one of the symbols of the expected revival of the Russian Navy. These are the largest and most multifunctional aircraft-carrying warships for the Russian Navy, which were laid down at the Zaliv shipyard in Kerch on July 20, 2020. However, since then there has been no concrete information on this project, except for a computer-drawn picture and a plastic mock-up shown at an exhibition a few years ago. And finally, some specifics appeared, but this only made more questions.


How and why they build UDC


First of all, it is necessary to say a few words about why universal landing ships are needed at all. The need for them arose during the Vietnam War, when the American aggressors had to land amphibious assault forces on the coast, actively defended by Vietnamese patriots. To avoid being hit by cannon artillery, the landing had to be carried out over the horizon, being at a distance of up to 30 kilometers from the coast. At the same time, it was necessary to provide air cover and airborne assault with the help of helicopters, as well as the overall command of all the forces involved in the operation. The result was a large-tonnage ship with a straight deck, capable of transporting marines, armored vehicles, helicopters, attack and transport, as well as serving as a headquarters.

The first universal landing ship was the Tarawa UDC with a total displacement of almost 40 thousand tons, carrying, in addition to the crew, 1903 marines, armored vehicles, as well as an air wing represented by 16 CH-46 helicopters, 6 CH-53 helicopters and 4 UH-1N helicopters . In total, 5 such ships were built in the series.

The successor to "Tarawa" was the UDC "Wasp". With a full displacement of 40,4 thousand tons, it can carry 1893 marines and armored vehicles. The Wasp air wing also looks more impressive: 30-32 CH-46 helicopters, 6-8 AV-8B Harriers or up to 46 CH-46 helicopters or 20 AV-8B aircraft. As you can see, Harrier VTOL aircraft were added to the rotorcraft, which strengthened the capabilities of the US Marine Corps. In total, 8 UDCs were built in this series, but one was lost due to a severe fire during repair work.

The pinnacle of the evolution of this class, of course, are UDC type "America". With a total displacement of 45,7 thousand tons, each such ship carries up to 1871 marines, armored vehicles, as well as a very impressive air wing: 12 MV-22, 6 F-35B, 4 ΑH-1Z, 4 ΜΗ-53, 3 UH-1 or 22 F-35B. That is, the outdated Harriers have been replaced by fifth-generation fighters with short takeoff and vertical landing. De facto "America" ​​is a real light aircraft carrier. In total, it is planned to build 11 pieces in a series.

What do all three ships have in common? If you look from above, you can see that the deck of the American UDC is a rectangle that allows you to make the most efficient use of every square meter of its surface, as well as take off and land fighters.


The Spaniards went a slightly different way, who made their own variation on the theme of the Wasp UDC, equipped with a continuous longitudinal take-off deck and a springboard on the bow, called the Juan Carlos I L61. On the basis of this project, the Australians built 2 Canberra-type UDCs, and the Turks built their TCG Anadolu (L-400) and are planning a second one. This will allow them to operate either American F-35B fighters or drones, which, in particular, Ankara has relied on.


Our "special" way



And now I would like to return to the Russian project 23900. In the public domain, there were only a picture drawn on a computer, as well as a layout that a year ago caused we have heated debates in the comments. Well-founded questions arose why the superstructure-island is so massive, and the bow of the ship is so pointed. In fact this technical the solution reduces the usable deck area of ​​the domestic UDC, which could be used to accommodate additional helicopters, and also makes it impossible for a fighter to take off horizontally in a shortened pattern, if we ever have such SKVVP.

And now, at the Army-2022 International Military-Technical Forum, a new layout of the UDC appeared, which surprised even more than the previous one. You can see exclusive photos link.

At first, judging by its dimensions and models of helicopters on the deck, by which you can determine the proportion, you can not dream about 40 thousand tons of full displacement promised by the developer.

Secondly, there is a feeling that the superstructure-island has become even more massive than before, taking away half the width of the deck.

Thirdly, the deck seems to have become even shorter than in the previous layout, and instead of a rational rectangular shape, it began to resemble an element of some kind of puzzle. Yes, “pretty” and “stylish”, but, alas, non-functional. You might think that the notorious "designer girls" painted it.

The question arises, was it worth giving such a technically complex project to JSC Zelenodolsk Design Bureau, which has no experience at all in the development of large-tonnage warships? Maybe some Nevsky Design Bureau could do better? It painfully looks like a planer.
15 comments
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  1. Vladimir Tuzakov (Vladimir Tuzakov) 16 August 2022 16: 45
    +5
    World practice, even the USSR during the time of V.I. Stalin, - TTX is issued for design to several specialized organizations, and then the results of the competition and the winner, and the most successful solutions from other competitive companies are introduced into its projects. It will be different, as with the Sukhoi company, there are no competitors, which means that they will make it, and it doesn’t matter if it’s successful, it’s good ... Something is not clear today, market capitalism is not visible on the big path of the military-industrial complex, state feudalism is visible to the naked eye with kickbacks, overpricing, overdue work and other diseases. "Something is not going well in the Danish kingdom of the military-industrial complex" ...
  2. Ivanushka-555 Offline Ivanushka-555
    Ivanushka-555 (Ivan) 16 August 2022 18: 39
    -3
    What, "Moscow" was not enough? Or will you keep at the pier and threaten to go to sea?
  3. Vladimir1155 Offline Vladimir1155
    Vladimir1155 (Vladimir) 16 August 2022 19: 44
    -1
    there is no urgent need for these monsters, in wartime it is useless, but in peacetime you can get by with bulk carriers and BDKs, it’s good that at least the displacement was reduced to what is more optimal than the monstrous 40000 tons, which would not fit into any port or dock
    1. Scharnhorst Offline Scharnhorst
      Scharnhorst (Scharnhorst) 16 August 2022 21: 58
      +2
      Purely theoretically - how can the displacement of the project be halved on the hull laid down two years ago? I think that the hull remained the same, the layout of the deck and the superstructure were changed (until it came to embodiment in metal).
      I agree that for our Navy, 40 kt is overkill and unjustified ambitions, as with the Mistrals. Maybe they will come to their senses and sell it to China or India when they are ready?
  4. Sergey Latyshev Offline Sergey Latyshev
    Sergey Latyshev (Serge) 16 August 2022 22: 12
    +4
    And what were the articles before !!!
    That according to the HPP, the displacement will be increased, the deck will be straightened, and there will be a mini-aircraft carrier, where specialized anti-ship UAVs, the latest vertical take-off aircraft, and 21st century radar maize with airships will famously take off ....

    And so far it comes out as a joke. "Well, I couldn't, I couldn't...."

    I am glad that IMHO, this is also disinformation. Ugly nose, futuristic control rooms, a side protrusion on the superstructure and rectangular protrusions / cutouts near the nose on the hull are clearly out of place.
    1. Boris Chernikov Offline Boris Chernikov
      Boris Chernikov (Boris Chern) 19 August 2022 10: 25
      0

      maybe the author first needed to insert a new photo and already make a comparison? otherwise it turns out that the article for the sake of the article is not about anything. and yes, just the new project is closer to "modern UDC" than the early version
      1. Marzhecki Online Marzhecki
        Marzhecki (Sergei) 20 August 2022 10: 44
        -2
        Damn, and the editor-in-chief and I didn’t even guess to insert a photo ....
        This photo is exclusive and protected by copyright.
  5. Denis Z Offline Denis Z
    Denis Z (Denis Z) 17 August 2022 00: 30
    +1
    Apparently you can forget about the su75 with the ukvp.
    1. 1_2 Offline 1_2
      1_2 (Ducks are flying) 17 August 2022 11: 31
      0
      Borisov said that they were developing VTOL aircraft, it seems to me that he is the most sane in the government, he would be appointed prime minister ... but the Tsar knows better, of course, after all, for 20 years he has been combining the work of the head of the personnel department of the government of the Russian Federation
  6. 1_2 Offline 1_2
    1_2 (Ducks are flying) 17 August 2022 11: 25
    0
    Marzhetsky can sleep peacefully, the width (they narrowed the superstructure) and the length of the deck are enough for a moment29 to take off, you just need to attach the springboard and pull the cables)), . but I think they won’t do anything, there will be a hassle with landing (to sit down you will have to free the deck, or wait for the plane to take off) they will most likely build a small aircraft carrier Varan on the UDC hull to scare the Papuans, it would be better if these grandmothers were sent to build the nuclear submarine Arcturus



    1. Marzhecki Online Marzhecki
      Marzhecki (Sergei) 20 August 2022 10: 47
      0
      Marzhetsky can sleep peacefully, the width (they narrowed the superstructure) and the length of the deck are enough to take off instantly29, you just need to attach the springboard and pull the cables)), . but I think they won’t do anything, there will be a hemorrhoid with landing (to sit down you will have to free the deck, or wait for the plane to take off)

      This is just unreal. Only SKVVP can be operated on the UDC - short takeoff and vertical landing.

      most likely they will build a small aircraft carrier Varan on the UDC hull to scare the Papuans

      Well, how can so many nonsenses be combined in one sentence at once ... On the basis of the UDC, build Varan, papauses ...
      UDC and aircraft carriers are ships of different classes, despite their external similarity. The UDC cannot conduct full-fledged air battles, it is just a large transport aircraft with an option for a small air wing. Its wing can only provide support for the landing or conduct anti-aircraft defense.
  7. greenchelman Offline greenchelman
    greenchelman (Grigory Tarasenko) 17 August 2022 12: 38
    0
    And now, at the Army-2022 International Military-Technical Forum, a new layout of the UDC appeared, which surprised even more than the previous one. You can get acquainted with exclusive photos by the link.

    - I'll disappoint you a little... this layout is almost a year old and there is nothing new there.
    https://topcor.ru/23263-strojaschiesja-udk-v-krymu-pervymi-poluchat-sekretnye-vertolety-minoga.html
    1. Marzhecki Online Marzhecki
      Marzhecki (Sergei) 20 August 2022 10: 48
      0
      Oh, and what is hidden under the link ...
  8. Victor 17 Offline Victor 17
    Victor 17 17 August 2022 22: 42
    0
    Each soldier on a very formidable development so that they are afraid so as not to be mocked
  9. Sergey3939 Offline Sergey3939
    Sergey3939 (Sergei) 30 August 2022 05: 25
    0
    We must wait for the project, and not guess at the layout! Many want to see a super versatile ship. This is a landing ship, not an aircraft carrier. Everyone dreams of airplanes on this ship. Where, to place them, if the under-deck space on landing ships is given to military equipment and floating craft located in the dock for over-the-horizon delivery of equipment and aircraft to the shore. Yes, helicopters. Do not get rid of the add-on. It has its own universal functions. But, once again, we need a project. We, all couch experts, not current specialists!