The revived Ruslan can get a choice of two aircraft engines


One of the most difficult and tangible consequences of breaking ties with Ukraine for Russia was the impossibility of using the power plants produced in Independence for warships, helicopters and airplanes. Many rearmament programs of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation were thwarted, ambitious ideas, such as the resumption of production in our country of An-124 transporters under a new name, automatically turned into fantastic ones. But the work on import substitution is underway and is already yielding certain results.


The topic of the possibility of reviving the "Ukrainian" heavy transport aircraft An-124 in Russia has been periodically raised since 2014. So, in March 2021, they talked about this with the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation Sergei Shoigu at the Aviastar-SP enterprise. But do we need such an aircraft, or will it be enough to maintain the existing Ruslan aircraft fleet in working order?

The question is far from idle. An aircraft of this class occupies a very narrow niche, and its production cannot be truly massive. On the other hand, in 2020, it suddenly became clear that heavy transporters are exceptionally useful. Let us recall how during the outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic, it was Ruslans and the only Ukrainian Mriya that were most in demand for freight transport of medical goods and masks between self-isolating countries. In addition to peaceful purposes, the An-124 aircraft are very much needed by our Military Transport Aviation. Due to the shortage of large landing ships, the Russian Navy has to supply the military group in the SAR, using everything that is able to stay on the water. Of course, it is impossible to solve the problem of regular supply by planes alone, but the presence of a large fleet of heavy transport workers, like Ruslans, will give the Ministry of Defense the opportunity to quickly transfer and deploy combat machinery abroad. As an example, we can recall the air delivery of the S-400 air defense system to Turkey on the An-124. Also, in 2013, the commander of the airborne troops Vladimir Shamanov spoke about the need for "Ruslan" for the Airborne Forces.

So, we still need heavy cargo planes. There have been plans to resume their production for a long time, and it is not for nothing that we called the An-124s “Ukrainian” in quotation marks, since they were assembled not only in Kiev, but also in Ulyanovsk. Of course, it would not have been possible to produce them under the An brand in Russia, but after the modernization of the project it will actually be a new aircraft, which could be called, for example, the Il-124. Unfortunately, all of these wonderful plans came up against one big problem.

In Russia, there is no engine for such a heavy aircraft. The enterprise that produces D-18T power plants for Ruslans and Mriy has remained in Ukraine, so you can forget about them, and no one has yet learned to fly without engines. The problem is very serious, but two ways of solving it are possible at once.

PD-35


Theoretically, the promising Russian PD-18 engine can be used as a replacement for the Ukrainian D-35T. The power plant with a thrust in the range from 24 to 38 tons is being developed on the basis of the PD-14 already created and undergoing certification, which will be installed on the MC-21 medium-haul liners.


PD-35 is supposed to be used on the Russian-Chinese wide-body long-range liner CR929, as well as on the completely Russian Il-96-400M. It is reported that last October the state corporation "Rostec" completed the assembly of the gas generator for the PD-35 and is working on the creation of a technology demonstrator. If successful, the start of serial production of the aircraft engine is expected in 2028.

Let's hope that testing and certification of a promising super-powerful power plant will be successful. Meanwhile, another option has recently emerged.

NK-32-02 (afterburner)


One of the main military News Recently, this is the resumption of production in Kazan of supersonic missile-carrying bombers Tu-160M. For the updated "strategists" an upgraded version of the NK-32 engine of the second series was developed. It is reported that the power and efficiency of the power plant have increased significantly. There is information that on the basis of the NK-32-02 an engine can be developed not only for the Tu-160M ​​or PAK DA, but also for the military transport aircraft of the An-124 type. How realistic is this?


If you look at specialized near-war publications, many readers in the comments express doubt that the Ruslan will be able to fly with engines from the White Swans. Indeed, the Ukrainian D-18T produces 24 tons of thrust, and the NK-32-02 - 25 tons, but only with afterburner. In the non-afterburner mode, in which the transport aircraft will actually fly, the thrust is much more modest - only 14 tons. And what to do? Instead of 4 to put 6 engines at once? Probably it is possible, but to what extent will it be expedient?

Obviously, the updated NK-32-02 will be “finished” further in order to increase its thrust in non-afterburner mode to the required performance. Apparently, the developers will have to redo the distribution block and increase the bypass ratio of the power plant. There is nothing impossible in this, moreover, there are plans to make a non-afterburner engine with a thrust of up to 32 tons on the basis of the NK-30 of the second series. After we switched from words to deeds and resumed production of NK-32-02, having significantly modified it, it is quite possible to believe in such modernization.
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  1. Eh! For us to rivet a motorcycle - like two fingers on the asphalt!
    1. Marzhecki Offline Marzhecki
      Marzhecki (Sergei) 15 December 2021 12: 40
      0
      They will recruit commentators by ad ...
      1. Orange bigg Offline Orange bigg
        Orange bigg (Alexander ) 15 December 2021 16: 36
        0
        Quote: Marzhetsky
        They will recruit commentators by ad ...

        In take-off (afterburner) mode, the Ukrainian D-18T produces a thrust of 24 tons, and the NK-32-02 - about 25 tons. Do not confuse the afterburner and cruise modes. In the D-18T and NK-32-02, they are in fact similar in magnitude. At the same time, you mention the NK-32-02 afterburner mode of 25 tons, and for some reason the afterburner mode of the D-18T with a thrust of 24 tons is issued for cruising.

        TTX D-18T.
        Takeoff mode. Thrust, kgf (kN) 23430 or 23,43 tons afterburner at takeoff
        Cruising mode Thrust, kgf (kN) 4860 or 4,86 tons cruising mode after take-off

        Takeoff mode (H = 0, Mn = 0, ISA):
        Traction, kgf (kN) 23430 (229,85)
        Specific fuel consumption, kg / kgf · h (kg / H · h) 0,34 (0,0347) [
        Cruise mode (H = 11000 m, Mn = 0,75, ISA):
        Traction, kgf (kN) 4860 (47,68)
        Specific fuel consumption, kg / kgf h (kg / h h) 0,546 (0,0557)
        Fuel consumption with a thrust of 5400-4800 kgf Ce (Н 36100 М-0.75 МСА + 10) 0.568-0.625 g / kg * h
        Dry weight (with reverse), kg 4100

        https://ru.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%94-18%D0%A2
        1. gunnerminer Offline gunnerminer
          gunnerminer (gunner miner) 15 December 2021 18: 35
          -8
          There is little time left for fiddling with the PAK TA, and the engine for it. The IL-76MD-90A is produced in homeopathic doses. The An-124 needs modernization for a long time. An-24, An-26 will become dangerous for the crews in three years.
    2. gunnerminer Offline gunnerminer
      gunnerminer (gunner miner) 15 December 2021 17: 57
      -7
      Maybe he can. Only who will give him the engine. The PAK TA project in a thickening fog. The Il-106 is a rather old Ilyushin project, the development of which began in the mid-80s. Then a competition was announced to create a new transport aircraft that would replace the Il-76. Design Bureau of Tupolev, Ilyushin and Antonov presented their proposals, the Ilyushin project was declared the winner. The new aircraft received the designation Il-106, it was planned to finish it before 1995, and in 1997 to start production. For obvious reasons, this never happened. The fact that the new PAK TA is nothing more than a modified Il-106, Nikolai Talikov, the general designer of Ilyushin, told TASS in 2015. It is likely that the old Soviet design will serve as the basis for a new transport aircraft. There is information that the new aircraft will be equipped with the most powerful Russian civil aircraft engine NK-93.
      Another vehicle, which is often spoken about when the PAK TA is mentioned, is the Ermak PTS. This is also a project of the Ilyushin Design Bureau, the first mention of which appeared in 2013. The machine was promised characteristics similar to the Il-106: a carrying capacity of up to 100 tons, a normal aerodynamic configuration. Work on Ermak was planned to begin in 2016. Serial production of the car was promised in 2024. And silence.
      1. Marzhecki Offline Marzhecki
        Marzhecki (Sergei) 15 December 2021 18: 16
        0
        Well, how do you make an airplane without an engine?
        1. gunnerminer Offline gunnerminer
          gunnerminer (gunner miner) 15 December 2021 18: 21
          -6
          You should ask Ilyushin residents. They are experienced in non-engine aircraft construction, Il-112V, I-114-300 ...
        2. Orange bigg Offline Orange bigg
          Orange bigg (Alexander ) 15 December 2021 18: 42
          0
          Quote: Marzhetsky
          Well, how do you make an airplane without an engine?

          PD-35 is being developed for PAK TA.
          1. gunnerminer Offline gunnerminer
            gunnerminer (gunner miner) 15 December 2021 20: 05
            -4
            Being developed does not mean having a production engine in stock.
          2. gunnerminer Offline gunnerminer
            gunnerminer (gunner miner) 15 December 2021 23: 27
            -4
            The creation of more economical engines up to the PS-90A3M version was led by the stringent requirements of ICAO and, of course, the sectional policy of the US State Department, which in turn imposed a ban on export operation on the previous version of these PS-90A1 and PS-90A2 engines. Let me assume that the appearance of the PD-35 is scheduled no earlier than 15 years later, no matter how some fantasized that it will appear by 2025. Representatives of the UEC plan to present only the first full-size demonstrator of the PD-35 engine by this time. And then factory and flight tests, with subsequent certification, will take, at best, another 10 years, not to mention the start of mass production.
            1. sH, arK Offline sH, arK
              sH, arK 18 January 2022 16: 53
              0
              Why write nonsense? The PS-90A3 differs from the PS-90A2 primarily by the absence of licensing restrictions from PrattWhitney, who were "stuffed" under EBN ... Well, the PS-90A2 differs from the PS-90A1 not by the ICAO requirements, which the PS-90A1 does not experience, but by an increase resource by 1.5 times, a 40% reduction in maintenance costs and certification under ETOPS-180 for the Tu-204.
  2. S WITH Offline S WITH
    S WITH (N S) 15 December 2021 14: 06
    -2
    b-52 has been flying for 60 years with 8 engines, and Russian Ruslan will be able to fly with 8 PD14 until the PD35 engine is developed in a version with a thrust of 25t
    1. S WITH Offline S WITH
      S WITH (N S) 15 December 2021 23: 43
      0
      you can also install 6pcs PS90A with a thrust of 18t
  3. Scharnhorst Offline Scharnhorst
    Scharnhorst (Scharnhorst) 15 December 2021 15: 48
    +3
    Since you have to design a new plane, you don't need to copy the previous one. The conventionally mentioned Il-124 should be made for a carrying capacity of 100 tons instead of 120 for the An-124. Transporting 120 tons in the dimensions of the cargo compartment of 36,5 * 6,4 * 4,4 m is effectively transporting something with a density of 120 kg per cubic meter (such as heavy foam or foam concrete blocks). For the Il-124 it is proposed to increase the possibilities of transporting oversized cargo, and not heavy ones. To do this, reduce the cargo compartment radically, but slightly increase the cross-section (30 * 6,5 * 4,5 m). It is not critical to get fat for a transporter 10 centimes in width and height of the fuselage, but to become 6,5 meters shorter is already worthy. The demand for such a unit will be higher, which means that the series will grow, it will be more interesting for the manufacturer. And the operators will be happy. And the competitive niche is free from An-124 and S-5V. Something like this! wink
    1. gunnerminer Offline gunnerminer
      gunnerminer (gunner miner) 15 December 2021 21: 25
      -6
      then you do not need to copy the previous one

      And if there is no qualification for more!

      And the competitive niche is free from An-124 and S-5V. Something like this! wink

      How easy it turns out! And the people of Ilyushin do not know ... It was in vain that Alyosha Rogozin was driven out. You would have suggested this idea to him. laughing
  4. greenchelman Offline greenchelman
    greenchelman (Grigory Tarasenko) 15 December 2021 17: 04
    +2
    And they have been talking about the replacement of Ruslans for the eighth year, but apparently, there are no tangible results yet.
    https://topcor.ru/17665-chem-primechatelen-proekt-rossijskogo-tjazhelogo-samoleta-slon.html
    1. Orange bigg Offline Orange bigg
      Orange bigg (Alexander ) 15 December 2021 17: 08
      0
      The D-18T has 23,4 tons of thrust in takeoff mode, while the NK-32-02 has about 25 tons of thrust in takeoff mode.
      It is clear that there are 25 tons or 25000 kgf. But in takeoff mode, all engines work on afterburner. The D-18T has a non-afterburner thrust on which it will fly, that is, at cruise mode 4,86 tons. Afterburner about 24 tons. NK-32-02 has afterburner about 25 tons. That is there are actually similar thrust engines. It is not for nothing that they want to create an NK-32D based on the NK-02-23 for the reincarnation of the An-124.



      1. gunnerminer Offline gunnerminer
        gunnerminer (gunner miner) 15 December 2021 18: 17
        -6
        Projects, plans, prospects. The residents of Ilyushen created very ambitious plans: in addition to "Ermak", the design bureau was engaged in the development of the Il-112 (carrying capacity 6 tons), MTA (a joint Russian-Indian project with a carrying capacity of 20 tons) and the heavy aircraft Il-476 (60 tons). promised to launch the Il-114-300 series.
        The Italian edition of The Aviationist in 2019 commented on the news about the first flight of the modernized Tu-160 on Russian NK-32-02 aircraft engines. At the same time, Italian experts recalled that Russia is positioning these new engines as "the largest and most powerful".
        However, after the successful completion of the Tu-160 flight, the Italians did not hide their surprise at the lack of "evidence" of the use of the new NK-32-02 engines. They expressed bewilderment at the fact that Russia did not provide the general public with images of these power units, citing "security concerns." At the same time, according to the publication, the UAC (United Aircraft Corporation) in social networks used images of the modernized Tu-160, which made its flight back in 2017. The Russian engineering school for 20 years has not come up with anything new. It lives off the invented by the previous generation of the disappeared country of the Soviets. News about the NK-32-02 is more like the reanimation of a 30-year-old engine.
        There is no reason to say that the NK-32-02 is a new engine. This follows from its name - it is seen as a modification of the old NK-32 engine. If we discuss the engine, you need to give at least some of its parameters, for a turbojet engine this is weight, maximum thrust, for a military engine, maximum thrust without afterburner, specific fuel consumption, for a bomber, thrust in cruising mode is also important, then it will immediately become clear that this is new. engine and how old or new. But it will be possible to discuss these parameters when the engine is serial and to be installed on a serial bomber.
        We increased the range by only 1000 km, this is 8%, slightly improved the design of some units, installed turbine blades with a slightly longer resource, but the price of the engine also skyrocketed.
        It is known that in the last century expensive alloying additives of rhenium and tantalum (Re and Ta) began to be added to the heat-resistant nickel alloy, and now ruthenium (Ru) is also added, the cost of which is about 700 rubles per gram (a gram of Re costs more than 500 rubles, Ta much cheaper - 20 rubles per gram). All these metals are heavy, from 2% to 10% of each are added to the alloys (from open sources), the blades are almost "gold". And the technology for producing and processing the blades is not cheap.
      2. gunnerminer Offline gunnerminer
        gunnerminer (gunner miner) 15 December 2021 19: 11
        -5
        Funny pictures from the UEC.
    2. Dukhskrepny Offline Dukhskrepny
      Dukhskrepny (Vasya) 18 January 2022 18: 19
      0
      In the current realities of Russia, this is normal
  5. The comment was deleted.
  6. Pavel57 Offline Pavel57
    Pavel57 (Paul) 15 December 2021 20: 14
    0
    Quote: S S
    b-52 has been flying for 60 years with 8 engines, and Russian Ruslan will be able to fly with 8 PD14 until the PD35 engine is developed in a version with a thrust of 25t

    Rather, 6 PD-14 is enough.
    1. gunnerminer Offline gunnerminer
      gunnerminer (gunner miner) 15 December 2021 21: 22
      -5
      Enough, maybe 4 PD-14. But who will give them, serial, tested ... laughing
  7. Matvey M Offline Matvey M
    Matvey M (Matvey Maizlin) 16 December 2021 09: 42
    -2
    The engine based on NK-32 has been ready for a long time. Flight tests began.
    This is NK-93, created during the life of N.D. Kuznetsov. The engine is unique, in fact
    One of the first propeller-driven fan motors. Its parameters already confirmed by bench and flight tests are close and possibly exceed the parameters of PD-14. And this is all more than 20 years ago. Nevertheless, the engine itself and the design bureau that created it were literally killed as far as I can see from afar. The reasons have finally been announced by the GDP. Making a glider for an existing engine is a simpler task when designing an airplane. That. sabotage continues, now with a transport aircraft.
    1. Orange bigg Offline Orange bigg
      Orange bigg (Alexander ) 16 December 2021 10: 59
      +1
      The engine based on NK-32 has been ready for a long time. Flight tests began.
      This is NK-93, created during the life of N.D. Kuznetsov. The engine is unique, in fact
      One of the first propeller-driven fan motors.

      What do you write? How can a propeller-fan motor NK-32 be created on the basis of the NK-93 jet engine? What do they have in common?



      Photo NK-93.



      Photo NK-32-02.

      This is NK-93, created during the life of N.D. Kuznetsov. The engine is unique, in fact
      One of the first propeller-driven fan motors. Its parameters already confirmed by bench and flight tests are close and possibly exceed the parameters of PD-14.

      Seriously or what? The use of the NK-93 with the achieved characteristics would lead to a decrease in the flight range of the Tu-214 and Il-96-300 by 7 ... 8% compared even with the use of the PS-90A on them, and if we compare it with the PD-14 , then it is even worse for the NK-93.

      . Development work on the engine began without sufficient scientific and technical groundwork (NTZ), first of all, on new units (BVV, "thin" nacelle, planetary differential gear of high power with a high resource, automatic control system of BVV). The lack of proper NTZ did not allow the Design Bureau to provide the required engine parameters (efficiency of units, mass characteristics, BVV operability, etc.).
      The first prototype of the NK-93 prototype (demonstration) engine was created in 1991. In total, 10 engines were under development, two of which were with composite propfan blades. The total operating time of the engines is 3600 hours.
      In 1999, the gas generator of the engine was tested at the TsIAM TBC under simulated flight conditions (H = 11 km, Mn = 0,75). According to the results of these tests, the efficiency shortfalls. (after 8 years of fine-tuning) were: Δη * cnd = 1,8%, Δη * cd = 1,4%, Δη * solid = 7,1%, Δη * tnd = 2%. According to the results of linking the engine parameters in bench conditions, the lack of efficiency propfan Δη * cv = 1 ... 1,5%, efficiency propfan turbine Δη * tvv = 1%. Due to shortfalls in efficiency the actual gas temperature in front of the turbine in take-off mode exceeded the design temperature by more than 140 ° C, and the specific fuel consumption in the cruising mode of operation exceeded the declared value by 9% (according to CIAM).
      In March 2003, ND Kuznetsov SNTK OJSC jointly with CIAM developed a plan of measures to improve efficiency. nodes and lowering the temperature of the gas in front of the turbine and a list of work on the fine-tuning of the engine was determined. According to this list, it is necessary to finalize almost all the components and systems of the engine, to carry out a complex of finishing work on the propfan and its control system, and also to develop a standard electronic automatic control system (ACS) and control. Only under these conditions is it possible to achieve the required indicators of reliability and engine life. Work according to the specified plan in the period 2003-2009. were not carried out. It will take 5-7 years to complete these works on the assessment of CIAM.

      The engine fine-tuning is still at the initial stage, ~ 10% of the necessary work has been completed, the final structural profile of the engine (typical design) has not yet been determined. The vane machines of the engine are made at the technology level of the 1980s (with a large number of stages in the compressor). There is still no standard SPG. The mass of the NK-93 engine No. 10 (according to the data of OJSC "SNTK named after ND Kuznetsov") is 6364 kg instead of 5140 kg according to the technical specification (excess by 24%).
      In addition to the above: in connection with the closure of the IL-106 topic, an assessment was made of the possibility of using the NK-93 engine on other machines of a similar class. Based on the results of these works, it can be concluded that the use of the NK-93 with the achieved characteristics would lead to a decrease in the flight range of the Tu-214 and Il-96-300 by 7 ... 8% compared to the use of the PS-90A on them.

      https://bmpd.livejournal.com/445832.html
      1. Matvey M Offline Matvey M
        Matvey M (Matvey Maizlin) 18 December 2021 00: 31
        0
        1. Specific fuel consumption PS-90A1 - 0,595
        PD-14 - 0,53
        NK-93 - 0,49
        Ie NK-93 is much more economical than PD-14, which is now in the pre-production stage. In fact, the NK-93 is the engine of the next Generation. And this is 20 years after the start of its flight tests and
        Termination of its financing. You are right, the Action Plan for 2003… .2009 was disrupted due to the termination of all the same funding.
        2. All arguments about the efficiency of compressor stages are all from the evil one.
        See item 1 there is proof of the perfection of the aircraft engine.
        Outstanding parameters of NK-93 are due to the use of a three-shaft engine with a propfan. The three-shaft scheme allows to achieve a Higher pressure in the combustion chamber, i.e. a more advanced Engine from the point of view of thermodynamics. The propeller is more efficient at subsonic compared to the external circuit of the turbojet engine. Moreover, the propeller-driven fan blades rotating in the opposite direction, having increased the flight efficiency, provided the most Perfect propulsion system. Result See item 1.
        3. Scientific and technical groundwork for the gondola - are you serious?
        NTZ for gearbox: A similar gearbox has been used at NK-12 for 60 years.
        4. Where did you get the mass of the NK-93 engine 6364 kg ?????
        In fact, the mass of the NK-93 is 3650 kg.

        5. It is absolutely clear that NK-93 was shot down on takeoff. The participation of CIAM This is undoubtedly proven by my opponent.