Armor is not strong and tanks are not fast: how the Malyshev plant dies


According to the official representatives of Ukraine, this country has been living in a state of war since 2014. Moreover - "aggression", about which Kiev incessantly shouts for any possible reason, and generally without it. It would seem that in such a situation the military-industrial complex of the state, which has been forced to “reflect” and “resist” for many years now, would have to be in a state of simply unprecedented prosperity, albeit at the cost of implementing the not very attractive formula “guns instead of butter” ...


However, in the existing “non-profit”, such an impression, in some fantastic “parallel reality”, everything happens exactly the opposite - the defense enterprises inherited from the Soviet Union are now completely destroyed, or they are falling apart, as they say, before our eyes. How and why this happens is perfectly illustrated by the example of the Malyshev Kharkov Tank Plant.

From steam locomotives to the "tank smithy"


Generally speaking, it would not be entirely correct to call the Kharkov plant, which we will discuss below, Soviet legacy. Much to the chagrin of Ukrainian "patriots", we recall that it was founded at the end of the 1897th century by the Russian Steam Locomotive and Mechanical Joint Stock Company. Yes, yes - and here the "klyat Muscovites" tried ... Actually, the enterprise that produced the first finished products at the end of XNUMX was called the Kharkov steam locomotive plant. However, it began to work for the defense industry very soon, having mastered the production of artillery pieces and shells for them - the Empire entered a series of wars and these products were more than in demand.

During the Civil War, the first tanks were also in the workshops of the plant - naturally, foreign ones, captured on the battlefield as trophies and driven there for repairs and bringing them into a combat-ready state. The establishment of Soviet power in the country very quickly determined the two main areas of specialization of the plant: locomotives, this, of course, is good (diesel locomotives continued to be produced there until the end of the twentieth century), but at that stage something else came to the fore. For the mechanization of agriculture, which was going through a period of collectivization, tractors were needed. And for the Red Army, which was strenuously preparing for the inevitable new battles - tanks, armored vehicles, tractors and other technique... It is precisely its manufacture that becomes the main occupation of "machine-building plants No. 183 and No. 75", from the shops of which practically all Soviet tanks came out, with an emphasis on medium and light vehicles. The best tank of the Great Patriotic War, the unsurpassed T-34, was developed by Mikhail Koshkin in the design bureau of the Kharkov plant, and in 1940 its serial production began on it.

Naturally, during the Nazi occupation of Kharkov, the enterprise was evacuated to the Urals, but as soon as the invaders were kicked out, work began again in its workshops under the slogan: "Everything for the front, everything for Victory!" The assignment to the plant of the name of the legendary Stalinist People's Commissar of Heavy Engineering, Colonel General of the Engineering Service Vyacheslav Malyshev, was a significant recognition of the merits of the collective of this enterprise in the implementation of what this outstanding statesman devoted his life to - the creation of the indestructible armored power of the USSR, first to the fluff and the ashes of the devastating hordes of the Wehrmacht and its allies, and then instilling irresistible fear into the NATO fighter. The Kharkov tank produced formidable combat vehicles, up to the T-80U. And by the way, they are not alone.

The famous Antarctic all-terrain vehicles that conquered the South Pole were called "Kharkovchanki" for a reason - they were developed and created at this very enterprise. Can we say that the history of the Malyshev plant ends with the collapse of the Soviet Union? Yes and no. What has definitely ended is a period of success and development. In the "nezalezhnoy" Kharkiv "forge of armor", like many other enterprises of the military-industrial complex - the factories "Arsenal", named after Artyom, "Antonov", "Yuzhmash" and many others, a completely different fate awaited ... Perhaps one of the main reasons the collapse of the Ukrainian military-industrial complex was the circumstance that during the division of Soviet military property this country got huge, completely disproportionate amounts of weapons and military equipment? “Why produce what is in warehouses, parks and other storage places and so in bulk ?!” - this is how the first Ukrainian rulers "thought", who initiated the total plundering of the country and the destruction of its industrial and scientific potential.

From industrial giant to ruins


In the first years of "gaining independence" a real orgy in the spirit of "wild capitalism" was taking place in Ukraine. State-owned enterprises deliberately went bankrupt in order to be "privatized" later, and, calling things by their proper names, stolen for a penny. In those cases when the "privatizers" did not manage to "devour" a particular industrial giant entirely, they began to "bite off" a piece of it. For sale were supposedly "unnecessary" production areas, objects of social, cultural and household purposes, housing stock, land plots. This cup did not pass and the Malyshev plant - its assets began to be gradually pulled apart. Their sale was motivated by the fact that during the Soviet era, the enterprise was designed to produce up to a thousand armored vehicles per year, and why so many tanks "peace-loving" and "multi-vector" Ukraine? The volume of production and the number of personnel of the enterprise decreased dozens of times, and the authorities were thinking with might and main about its complete "conversion" - re-profiling to create either seeders, or even carpets, or something else purely civil.

In fact, the plant was remembered only when, through the efforts of the camarilla of the first president of Ukraine, Leonid Kravchuk, during which weapons from the country were sold literally across the globe, the conservation storage facilities of the equipment were pretty devastated. Kiev has already got used to the quick and easy "weapon" millions and realized that the Malyshev plant is capable of providing first-class goods for their receipt. So, in 1996, the first export contract of the enterprise was concluded - with Pakistan for the supply of 320 T-80UD tanks. The deal was worth more than half a billion dollars, and it was fully completed by the end of 1999. At the same time, the Malyshevites mastered the production of a 120-mm tank gun according to NATO standards - Kiev's "tilt" to the West began to become more and more distinct. However, this did not help either.

The assets of the enterprise were being sold at full speed: a club, a clinic, a canteen, recreation centers, a number of workshops ... The list is long. In 2003, trying to correct the increasingly catastrophic situation at the Malyshev plant, the production of the Bulat tank, which is a "national" modernization of the T-64B machine, began. Widely advertised, this tank during the hostilities in the Donbass showed its complete failure and, according to the leadership of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, was because of this replaced on the front line with "conventional" T-64s. After the first Ukrainian "Maidan" the state of the enterprise deteriorated even more - it was no longer able to cover the obligatory payments to the budget and delayed the salaries of its own workers. A new attempt to "leave" at the expense of exports ended in failure - the contract for the supply of 420 armored personnel carriers to the Iraqi army, concluded in 2009, resulted in a terrible shame and a worldwide scandal. The deadlines for its implementation were shamelessly disrupted, the equipment was supplied with such a defect that the indignant Iranians simply returned some of the cars to the plant, for which they counted the Kharkiv residents with fines of $ 3 million.

The next deal, which promised Thailand 2011 Oplot supertanks in 49, almost did exactly the same. They did not meet the deadlines (deliveries were to be made before 2015), and the Asian partners already wanted to break the contract, but they managed to get out nevertheless. At about the same time, the plant's managers began to repeat about the "fantastic export potential of" Oplot ", which the states of Asia, Africa and Latin America are allegedly ready to purchase by almost dozens and hundreds. All this turned out to be another bluff - no new orders followed. For the Ukrainian army, which seems to have adopted the "Oplot" into service, it is too expensive and difficult to operate. It is better to "patch" the old, Soviet cars - in the hands of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, there is still no difference.

The hostilities in Donbass, it would seem, breathed new life into the Malyshev plant - the capacity utilization of the enterprise increased dramatically, so that for the first time in recent decades it even had to hire new workers. However, it was still not about the construction of new tanks, but only about bringing the Soviet vehicles taken out of storage and urgent repair of the scrap metal that came from the front line to a more or less efficient state. The current president of Ukraine, Volodymyr Zelensky, who appeared at the plant shortly after his own election, feigned indignation that only one new tank had come out of his workshops since 2009! I got angry and left ... And the enterprise was left to die. Despite the war (or, rather, precisely because of it), large-scale theft of equipment, materials and equipment worth millions of hryvnias, uncovered later, continued. Today, the Malyshev plant has a debt of almost 2 billion hryvnias (5.4 billion rubles) to the state. The company completed the year 2020 with a loss of 112 and a half million hryvnia (303 million rubles). It did not have orders for the manufacture of armored vehicles before, and does not have them now. The average salary at the enterprise is 10 thousand hryvnias (27 thousand rubles), which leads to a huge turnover of staff - people literally leave from there, especially in light of the fact that they have not been paid even this money for the past several months.

This month, the situation at the plant has reached such intensity that representatives of the Ukroboronprom concern, which the Malyshev plant has been part of for 10 years, had to meet with its staff. A lot was promised at this meeting - both the state order, and financial support and "development of the enterprise", and even "restoration of confidence in it from foreign partners" (I wonder how?), And other very positive prospects. However, the specific "anti-crisis plan" announced later by the current director of the plant Valery Krylas, as it turned out, comes down mainly to "repeating the past": "optimization of production areas and capacities" (that is - their sale), "optimization of production costs and personnel of the enterprise" (that is, dismissal of employees and reduction of payments), as well as the like. Moreover, in the same "Ukroboronprom" they vaguely hint at the forthcoming "corporatization", in which the employees of the Malyshev plant quite reasonably see the last step towards its final collapse and squandering.

Well, it is quite obvious that following the rocket and aircraft industry, Ukraine is about to lose its own tank building. On the one hand, this, in all honesty, is somehow calming. On the other hand, it causes resentment and pain for how in the “nezalezhnoy” once again the works and achievements of many generations were thrown into the wind.
18 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. Sergey Latyshev Offline Sergey Latyshev
    Sergey Latyshev (Serge) April 29 2021 10: 41
    -9
    not dead yet? since the 15th year, articles have been published in hohlon news that has died, is dying, will die ...
    see, the slogan of Medvedev was also mastered there "........ hold on"
    1. Morgan Offline Morgan
      Morgan (Miron) 17 May 2021 21: 34
      -1
      Here you have "Hurray patriots" crammed minuses. Apparently the truth and sober thoughts are out of place here.
  2. beeper Offline beeper
    beeper April 29 2021 10: 52
    +10
    Better collapse and squandering than if the "Judeo-Bandera" SS men received new tanks for their bloody war crimes! negative
    “And we are for sho?” - for these 7 years, the Malyshev workers, “deprived of everything,” from day to day, industriously “riveted” a bunch of small armored vehicles for the massacre in Donbass and as if they do not understand what and whom they are doing, they are complicit ?! fool
  3. Igor Pavlovich Offline Igor Pavlovich
    Igor Pavlovich (Igor Pavlovich) April 29 2021 11: 43
    -11%
    As Comrade Napoleon III said, “it doesn't matter how they vote, but what matters is how they count”. Reading the next creation of Neukropny, I find out once again that he is once again "hard to lie" ...

    in 2020, the company's loss was reduced from UAH 420 million to UAH 112 million compared to 2019.
    ... in 2020 against 2019, the volume of production of commercial products at the plant increased 2 times, the volume of sales of commercial products - 2,2 times, the production of tank engines - 1,6 times, and labor productivity increased 1,9 times ... At the same time, losses from rejects decreased by 42%, administrative expenses - by 16%, general production costs - by 5,7%, electricity and gas consumption by 4,3% and 45,4%, respectively.
    “According to operational information, at the end of the first quarter of this year,“ Plant im. Malysheva "will receive a positive financial result and plans to make a profit based on the results of work in 2021"
    ... in 2020, the average wages of production personnel were increased by 9%. Now it is 11 558 UAH

    Mr. Necropny (not Mr.) has long forgotten how to blush for his texts ... hi
    1. isofat Offline isofat
      isofat (isofat) April 29 2021 12: 55
      +6
      Quote: Igor Pavlovich
      Mr. Necropny (not Mr.) has long forgotten how to blush for his texts ...

      But you, Igor Pavlovich, are all red. I'm talking about a ring around your missing user picture, avatar. yes
      1. Igor Pavlovich Offline Igor Pavlovich
        Igor Pavlovich (Igor Pavlovich) April 29 2021 13: 22
        -10%
        Well, Jesus Christ was generally crucified for the truth ...
        1. isofat Offline isofat
          isofat (isofat) April 29 2021 14: 10
          +6
          Quote: Igor Pavlovich
          Well, Jesus Christ was generally crucified for the truth ...

          You are wrong again and misleading others. yes
    2. Morgan Offline Morgan
      Morgan (Miron) 17 May 2021 21: 38
      +1
      You know the answer to the data you gave - "you are lying", "they are not there", "Crimea is ours"
  4. zzdimk Offline zzdimk
    zzdimk April 29 2021 13: 01
    +2
    The states have announced that they are going to clean up the promotion of the present state of affairs with Ukraine. The stench also showed an overwhelming sense of the conflict in Donbas.

    and without knowledge of the language it is read in a completely different sense.
  5. bzbo Offline bzbo
    bzbo (Black doctor) April 29 2021 18: 03
    +3
    When the losses are reduced to zero, the plant will fit in a matchbox ...
  6. Petr Vladimirovich (Peter) April 29 2021 18: 22
    -1
    Personally, I really like the term "Agrarian Superpower" ...
  7. Dust Offline Dust
    Dust (Sergei) April 30 2021 03: 51
    0
    Why does Ukraine need two tank factories Lvov and Kharkov? ... Whom should they fight against? Russia is too tough for them. Even if they do Armatu!). Against NATO? ... So they rush there themselves. I think the age of tanks has passed ... Ukraine does not need tanks, this expensive toy. Better to let them build roads with this money ... This is a real problem for Ukraine.
  8. assault 2019 Offline assault 2019
    assault 2019 (assault 2019) April 30 2021 06: 30
    0
    Have you forgotten how the Russian military-industrial complex died in the 90s, and in the early 00s, despite the fact that at that time the RF Armed Forces were actively fighting in the Caucasus (the first and second Chechen wars)?

    The same thing has been going on in Ukraine for six years, the war seems to be going on, and the money allocated for it is simply plundered by officials and generals ...
  9. Angry Citizen Offline Angry Citizen
    Angry Citizen (Evil Citizen) 11 May 2021 08: 11
    0
    The next stage of the epic "How missed ... everything ..."
  10. Ryumin Sergey Offline Ryumin Sergey
    Ryumin Sergey 12 May 2021 08: 17
    0
    Malyshev's plant has been staggering for more than a dozen years. The first bell rang back in the early 80s of the last century. Even then, the quality of products began to fall catastrophically together with the intellectual crisis of the design bureau. Development is stuck at the 70s level. At that time, it was decided to help the plant and place an order for the production of T-80 tanks developed by the Kirovsky Zavod Design Bureau. Malyshev's plant with great enthusiasm failed this aptitude test. Then it was decided to lighten the order level by reworking the T-80U into the T-80UD, attaching the T-64 back to the Kirov tank. Many believe that this was done in Kharkov, but alas. And this was done in Leningrad. This is how the legend of the most "powerful" tanks in the world appeared.
  11. Morgan Offline Morgan
    Morgan (Miron) 17 May 2021 21: 32
    0
    Silly articles for stupid people "how the Malyshev plant dies", "how Yuzhmash dies", how Antonov dies, how Ukraine freezes and so on for 7 years in a row. I wonder who still believes in this nonsense?
  12. Dmitry Outpost Offline Dmitry Outpost
    Dmitry Outpost (Dmitry Outpost) 20 May 2021 16: 02
    0
    So they have there every year some kind of change in official statements. Only for some reason bam, and the salary is not paid for months. And the statistics that are presented in the statement are complete crap, one percent, not a single physical indicator
  13. bulava74 Offline bulava74
    bulava74 (bulava) 11 July 2021 17: 49
    +2
    It's good that "dies". One competitor jumped overboard in the world of tank building.

    - That means there are fewer competent engineers and workers in their country.
    - Below is the scientific and technological culture and scientific and technological revolution.
    - The level of GDP is lower from the loss of such a huge surplus value. After all, the production of one tank pulls a bunch of subcontractors. And they, too, will die from the lack of orders.
    - Orders for tanks from world buyers are possible in Russia. After all, there is no dumping at a manufacturer's price on a similar topic.

    It is good for Russia that tank building will disappear in Ukraine, just as turbine manufacturing for helicopters, ships, and gas pumping stations will disappear. This is a high level of technology and he gets "kerdyk" .. Laws of the market and global politics.