Why Roscosmos "merges" the project of the Angara rocket

Yesterday, the Angara rocket family was practically “our all” in an attempt to maintain Russia's position in space. And now the state-owned corporation Roscosmos is breaking a contract for its production with the Khrunichev Center. What is wrong with our “great white hope”?




The Russian missile is a "long-term construction", which spent over 100 billion rubles, and is the subject of serious debate, having its supporters and opponents.

Good hangar?


It should be understood that the booster was the brainchild of its time. Its concept was born in the early nineties, immediately after the collapse of the USSR. Baikonur suddenly found himself on the territory of another sovereign state, like many space industry enterprises. The young Russian Federation needed a rocket that was completely created and launched in our country.

During its design, very interesting solutions were applied. Instead of the poisonous heptyl Kazakhstan complained about, environmentally friendly kerosene was used as fuel. Engineers provided a modular design that makes the launch vehicle almost universal. Based on universal missile modules (URM), you can assemble a full line of carriers: from light to very heavy. Such an approach made it possible to put production on the conveyor belt and very seriously reduce the cost of the final cost of spacecraft.

As a result, Russia was to receive the ubiquitous Angara, covering all positions, including the Federation manned spacecraft, plus the old but reliable workhorse, Soyuz. Moreover, all launches should be carried out from the territory of our country, guaranteeing us a reliable gate to space. Beautiful, rational.

But why, after more than two decades, does the Russian Defense Ministry swear at the Angara, and Roskosmos is breaking the contract for its production?

Bad "hangar"?


Due to the lack of adequate funding in the nineties, the project turned out to be very time-consuming, realized largely on the enthusiasm of its developers. During the period when Angara could already fly and fly, numerous private space companies sprang up abroad, which began to intercept launch orders from Roskosmos. The Angara itself is good, but with all the budget billions invested in it, it flew only twice.

Twice! Astronautical experts explain that foreign customers are not ready to get in touch with a launch vehicle with such a touch to launch their expensive satellites. Within our country, the main client of the services of Roscosmos is the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation for putting the Gonets satellites into a low orbit. Those often burn out, so they need to be updated regularly. However, the power of the Angara for such launches is excessive, and the lighter Unions can cope with this.

The mess created in Roscosmos itself does not add optimism. Allegedly, to optimize production processes, the Angara was transported from Moscow to distant Omsk. But the effect was the opposite, the enterprise migrating to the periphery began to disrupt the deadlines for the delivery of finished products. Employees of the Omsk branch were even demonstrably deprived of bonuses. Instead of a heavy Angara, the launch of the Federation ship was handed over to the Soyuz-5 rocket, and they also forgot about the manned version of the Angara. Since 2014, all project implementation deadlines have been disrupted.

An expert in the field of astronautics Ivan Moiseev comments on the reasons for what is happening:

The last two years, the level of work of Roscosmos below the plinth. This is a complete lack of professionalism in organizing work.


Echoing him and Alexander Galkin, a columnist on space issues:

In recent years, four general directors of Roscosmos have been replaced. Each brings its own people, who must delve into the situation. There is simply not enough time. Plus - corruption. They steal like they do not steal anywhere. These are the words of the head of the Accounts Chamber, Alexei Kudrin.


So I want to sneak something about “effective top managers”, but not to laugh. The Angara project is being buried right before our eyes, despite the fact that the production of Proton missiles, which are being replaced by the Angara, has been suspended. Apparently, a good rocket interferes with a bad top manager, not otherwise ...
Photos used: https://community.tmro.tv/
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  1. Arkharov Offline
    Arkharov (Grigory Arkharov) 3 November 2019 12: 43
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    The site has just had an enthusiastic article from 28.10., In an affirmative style it could be learned from it that Rogozin claimed:

    "It is planned that the Perm enterprise will produce up to 50 RD-191 engines per year. This is a huge amount!" - summed up Rogozin.

    How is it possible, is it impossible to plan the development of the industry for a week? And the authors and commentators are in a hurry, as always, to rejoice, haven't the many years of rich experience of such promises taught anything?
    1. 123 Offline
      123 (123) 3 November 2019 13: 19
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      And the authors and commentators are in a hurry to rejoice as always, haven't the many years of rich experience of such promises taught anything?

      And you, as always, rush to "bury" everything? It’s not enough that Rogozin planned there, maybe he is stupid and it’s time to retire him, or maybe they made adjustments for other reasons. All the same, we still do not know. And what do you say if they start to produce engines, and even 50 a year? Not everything turns out right away, but if in Russia they really take on something, they will definitely do it. Has many years of experience taught you nothing?
      1. Arkharov Offline
        Arkharov (Grigory Arkharov) 3 November 2019 18: 37
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        I’m not in a hurry to bury anything, it’s even a little annoying for me; space has always interested me, however, regardless of nationality. Just, in principle, I don’t understand who makes decisions and who is responsible for what. If, in your opinion, Rogozin is "stupid", what is he doing there? And what are your “if they begin,” and when all the same: “..take it for real, they will definitely do it”? There is no need to try to justify the incompetence of the last effort and, it seems, the collapse of the industry, it all looks too pathetic.
        1. 123 Offline
          123 (123) 3 November 2019 19: 58
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          If, in your opinion, Rogozin is "stupid", what is he doing there?

          To be honest, I don’t know, it seems he should retire, or maybe he, like Serdyukov, was falling apart, falling apart, and then it seemed to be when everything interesting started with him, but he was engaged in an ungrateful business, collecting all the spits on his face. We have little information to judge such things objectively.

          And what are your “if they begin,” and when all the same: “..take it for real, they will definitely do it”?

          And we always have it, at first they create difficulties, and then they are heroically overcome. And yours, as I understand it, those that Yuzhmash eat up?

          There is no need to try to justify the incompetence of the last effort and, it seems, the collapse of the industry, it all looks too pathetic.

          I’m not going to defend any incompetence. Is it too borzoi to draw a conclusion about the collapse of the industry? Suspension of rocket launch - is it a collapse? Do not wait. sad
          1. Arkharov Offline
            Arkharov (Grigory Arkharov) 4 November 2019 09: 07
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            And yours, as I understand it, those that Yuzhmash eat up? - What is your limited worldview and worldview? It seems that you write reasonable things sometimes, but I look, and everything with success fits into the paradigm: Russia / Ukraine. What, there are no more countries, peoples, problems, phenomena, incl. domestic, purely Russian? Here recently, one commentator of the opposite sex recommended Soloviev from Ukraine to Belarus to "switch." Judging by your comment, he has not yet managed to use such a valuable and timely instruction, and you continue to "think" in the old way?
            1. 123 Offline
              123 (123) 4 November 2019 10: 10
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              And yours, as I understand it, those that Yuzhmash eat up? - What is your limited worldview and worldview?

              I will quote -

              And what are your "if they start"

              I just assumed. Wrong? Whose will it be if if “ours” are “yours” for you?

              Here recently, one commentator of the opposite sex recommended Soloviev from Ukraine to Belarus to "switch." Judging by your comment, he has not yet managed to use such a valuable and timely instruction, and you continue to "think" in the old way?

              If events will develop in the same direction, then, unfortunately, Soloviev and Belarus will switch over time. Now Ukraine is quite suitable for demonstrating “how everything is bad there and could have been with us”. And Solovyov, by the way, has interesting people, Shakhnazarov, for example, has Kurginyan, tells interesting things. And Soloviev himself ..... so-so. winked
              1. Arkharov Offline
                Arkharov (Grigory Arkharov) 4 November 2019 11: 14
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                Kurginyan ........?! You still have the newspaper Tomorrow, or the Tsargrad canal recommend ....
                1. 123 Offline
                  123 (123) 4 November 2019 11: 30
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                  Kurginyan ........?! You still have the newspaper Tomorrow, or the Tsargrad canal recommend ....

                  Is there such a newspaper? It's not a recommendation, uncle sometimes bends such turns of speechfellow and a peculiar train of thought. And the received information must be filtered, do not get stuck in a one-sided loop. It is better to comprehend yourself. Sources can be different, of course, there are exceptions, "REN TV", for example. I tried to see, just the brain begins to boil from an endless stream ... wassat The rain is dull, I just can’t make myself see request they just don’t have enough mold on the walls, and so complete despondency crying
          2. Arkharov Offline
            Arkharov (Grigory Arkharov) 4 November 2019 09: 38
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            By the way, Serdyukov did a lot of good for the army. In any case, the soldiers at least stopped building general's dachas.
            1. 123 Offline
              123 (123) 4 November 2019 10: 12
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              By the way, Serdyukov did a lot of good for the army. In any case, the soldiers at least stopped building general's dachas.

              It could even be. I wrote somewhere somewhere that while he was spat on his back, the foundations of rearmament were laid at the same time. His activities can be evaluated only many years later. Now we simply do not own the information.
    2. Marzhecki Offline
      Marzhecki (Sergei) 3 November 2019 13: 19
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      Today we have a positive future: we will do, develop, create, produce ...
      1. Arkharov Offline
        Arkharov (Grigory Arkharov) 3 November 2019 18: 28
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        Maybe this is a good tradition?
      2. 123 Offline
        123 (123) 3 November 2019 20: 44
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        Today we have positive things in the future tense: we will do, develop, create, produce ..

        And you probably will not have another way. Apparently, in your environment this point of view prevails. What happened in fact - the refusal to manufacture the Angara launch vehicle, the reasons for this are unknown.
        In my opinion, if a journalist wants to understand the problem, in this case the production of rocket technology, he is looking for a competent specialist. You select under-experts, the main thing is that the point of view coincides with yours. They talk about total corruption, the collapse, and hereinafter referred to as "remove the cast."

        An expert in the field of astronautics Ivan Moiseev comments on the reasons for what is happening:
        The last two years, the level of work of Roscosmos below the plinth. This is a complete lack of professionalism in organizing work.

        It's all? belay Deep Scan. wassat You really helped readers understand what is happening. lol However, it is not surprising. Your famous expert .... an astronautical consultant ... And what does he tell others? Here, for example, fresh, he talks about the robot "Fedor":

        https://awfulavalanche.wordpress.com/2019/08/26/more-russian-space-news-did-fyodor-the-robot-screw-up-part-ii/

        But this does not interest us very much, it is more important here that he tells about himself:

        Moiseev leads something called the Space Policy Institute. It sounds dumber in English than in Russian. According to their website, ICP was created in 1993 by the Russian Space Agency, the Russian Law Academy of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation and the expert firm Yurek with the support of the Commission on Transport, Communications and Informatics. And Cosmos of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation, as an independent and non-profit research organization ”- like that!

        Just a wonderful Russian expert telling foreigners about space exploration. Space Policy Institute. belay Perhaps in Russian this also sounds silly. This organization has a lousy website -

        http://ispolicy.ru/about/direction/

        There is even his publication, from which it is clear that technical issues are not his specialization. He is even unable to maintain his site in order. And it’s not a fact that the information there is reliable. The board of trustees of this office lists Alaverdov Valery Vladimirovich - first deputy. Director General of the Russian Space Agency. Something I don’t remember, but this is not surprising. In 1997, he was released due to retirement. 22 years ago ..... But it doesn’t matter, it looks more solid .. Ivan Mikhailovich himself is listed on the site as "leading analyst of the expert firm" YurEk "." It sounds solid, but here's the bad luck - the desk has not been operating for three years

        https://info.1cont.ru/contragent/ooo-ehkspertnaja-firma-jurehk/

        But Ivan Mikhailovich selflessly tells foreign mugs about his work. smile Assistant Director for Public Relations - Alisa Valentinovna Bulgakova - Tarasenko, perhaps she should have been following the information on the site? But, apparently, she has no time, she is busy with another, she writes letters in defense of like-minded people.

        On August 2, 2019, Yegor Zhukov, our friend and colleague, a student at the HSE Department of Political Sciences, a blogger, and a retired candidate for the Moscow City Duma, was arrested as part of a criminal riot case in Moscow on July 27, 2019. He was charged under part 2 of Article 212 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation (participation in mass riots). If convicted, Yegor faces 3 to 8 years in prison.

        https://doxajournal.ru/uni/egorzhukov

        This, of course, is her personal affair, but characterizes her as a “wonderful assistant” and gives an idea of ​​the views of this collective. In general, such experts you have. sad And based on their opinion, can you write an objective article? request You are not interested in reality; the main thing is that they support the opinion you need. negative
        1. Arkharov Offline
          Arkharov (Grigory Arkharov) 4 November 2019 09: 34
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          Do you have “obscurantism on the march” directly, are you looking for “enemies” again, are you directly making some kind of “policy” for experts? We have gone through this many times, a well-known approach, but it has never led to anything good. Only a further lag, and there are unthinkable attempts to catch up (well, how can it be impossible without labor feats and heroic achievements?). And this means that the problem is not how the industry works, but how various "enemies" cover it (well, in your opinion, cannot "our" person sign such letters?). Do you think this will work out?
          But you don’t even think that perhaps the Angara is already desperately outdated, 30 years of development, this is too much. Although I understand this is exactly what you think:

          Not everything turns out right away, but if in Russia they really take on something, they will definitely do it.

          But just not now and not in this industry, this principle in the world has long died and remained in your and your like head. Maybe they even realized that, compared to what Musk is doing, this is, literally, the past century? The question is different, all this could not be understood a little earlier?
          1. 123 Offline
            123 (123) 5 November 2019 06: 58
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            Do you have “obscurantism on the march” directly, are you looking for “enemies” again, are you directly making some kind of “policy” for experts?

            Obscurantism? Do you sew politics? belay I am clearly showing you that these are not experts, but swindlers and charlatans. By definition, the space industry cannot tell anything. They have one answer to everything - total corruption, they can’t do anything, everyone merged in such a way. If only politics is of interest, let them go to their rallies, rather than pretend to be experts. In the comments left links, go look. If you are too lazy, here’s a link specially for you to the publications of this "expert":

            http://ispolicy.ru/publications/?id=3

            Here he is, the fundamental work of his whole life, belay invaluable contribution to the development of astronautics. fellow And are you satisfied with such experts? And after that, did you broadcast something about Solovyov and Tsargrad? belay You just blow into everyone’s ears ... and you only thank. Are you unable to rethink the information yourself? request

            We have gone through this many times, a well-known approach, but it has never led to anything good. Only a further lag, and there are unthinkable attempts to catch up (well, how can it be impossible without labor feats and heroic achievements?).

            You tell me about the 37th year. laughing If a person does at a rally, does that make him a holy and unquestioned authority? Such an approach will surely lead you to victories and prosperity, and you will not need labor exploits. This is the psychology of the "Maidan herd".

            And this means that the problem is not how the industry works, but how various "enemies" cover it (well, in your opinion, cannot "our" person sign such letters?). Do you think this will work out?

            And what did they tell us about the industry? Specific reasons? Yes, just a universal answer to all occasions, "the mode mustache leaked." Your person can sign any letters (I indicated that this is a personal matter), but this does not make a good specialist. I just showed that “your person” has information on the site that is outdated many years ago. And should I take seriously the opinion of these mediocrity, whose sole merit is a certain political position?

            But you don’t even think that perhaps the Angara is already desperately outdated, 30 years of development, this is too much. Although I understand this is exactly what you think:

            You will laugh, but it seems, perhaps, that is precisely the point. The rocket began to develop many years ago and it is outdated even before the time of construction. That's how they developed the Su-27, did it, watched it, compared it with its counterparts, evaluated the prospects and redid it again. But neither the author nor the "experts" are interested in this; they want to talk about corruption. What, the designers of the SU-27 were also all mediocre mediocrity and corrupt?

            But just not now and not in this industry, this principle in the world has long died and remained in your and your like head. Maybe they even realized that, compared to what Musk is doing, this is, literally, the past century? The question is different, all this could not be understood a little earlier?

            What is Musk doing? Why is he better than Rogozin? He failed the delivery of astronauts to the ISS; they will again fly on Soyuz. Musk amateur, the organization of work he has no solid corruption, cut the budget. All that he knows how to show the models of the lunar rocket to everyone and throw cars into space.
            PS You will leave the house, do not forget to bow to the icon and image of the Mask. sad
            1. Arkharov Offline
              Arkharov (Grigory Arkharov) 5 November 2019 09: 05
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              I'm not going to discuss with you, I'm only interested in the mention of the letter. And you perfectly understand what I mean.
              1. 123 Offline
                123 (123) 5 November 2019 10: 00
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                I'm not going to discuss with you, I'm only interested in the mention of the letter. And you perfectly understand what I mean.

                The letter, as such, does not interest me either (I repeat for the third time - a private matter), these people can be given out for experts for only one reason - the same political convictions. That is what I have shown. And do not pretend that you do not understand what I meant.
    3. 123 Offline
      123 (123) 7 November 2019 15: 29
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      It is planned that the Perm enterprise will produce up to 50 RD-191 engines per year. This is a colossal volume! "- concluded Rogozin.

      Good evening! Here a little detail about this enterprise appeared. I thought, suddenly you are wondering .... In general, at the link number 26.

      https://www.russiapost.su/archives/195252
  2. Sergey Latyshev Offline
    Sergey Latyshev (Serge) 3 November 2019 16: 47
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    Roscosmos "merges" the project of the Angara rocket

    I see many letters, I see experts, I see Kudrin, why I merge - I do not see ...

    Deadlines, no rockets ??? So this is a common thing ...
    And you can still wash a lot of money ...
  3. shadow Offline
    shadow 4 November 2019 03: 49
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    Why argue? Ankara is an old project. At one time, they abandoned the T-95 Black Eagle tank for the same reason and created the T-14 Armata. It's the same here. They will take the best that has been done for Ankara, introduce new developments and get something more modern, economical and environmentally friendly. The thought does not stand still. And what was relevant then: in the early nineties, now out of date. This is the same as with the submarine of the Ash project. Now this is the project "Ash M". And even more so no one will report to the world public about this.
  4. Marzhecki Offline
    Marzhecki (Sergei) 4 November 2019 06: 24
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    Quote: Shadows
    "Black Eagle" for the same reason and created the T-14 Armata.

    And what do we have with Armata now?
  5. Marzhecki Offline
    Marzhecki (Sergei) 4 November 2019 06: 26
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    Quote: 123
    In general, such experts you have. sad And based on their opinion, can you write an objective article? request Reality does not interest you, the main thing is that they support the opinion you need

    Oh, what are there. Find others and refute these points, that’s all. My opinion is my opinion. Do not agree - argue yours, that’s all.
    1. 123 Offline
      123 (123) 4 November 2019 07: 20
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      Oh, what are there. Find others and refute these points, that’s all. My opinion is my opinion. Do not agree - argue yours, that’s all.

      Is this an expert? Space politics .... some kind of "cosmopolitan". Naturally, you have the right to your opinion, but it is determined by such consultants, and you broadcast it to readers, that is, you are already forming public opinion. The question is why are you doing this? Trying to figure out the essence of the problem and find a solution, or simply to suggest that everything has rotted, everything is leaked, the polymers are running out, it's time to take down the power.
  6. Marzhecki Offline
    Marzhecki (Sergei) 4 November 2019 06: 30
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    Quote: Sergey Latyshev
    Uh ... so why "Roscosmos" merges "the project of the Angara rocket" "
    I see many letters, I see experts, I see Kudrin, why I merge - I do not see ...

    The protons were suspended in production, and the Angara can not really put on the conveyor. What could this situation lead to?
  7. Marzhecki Offline
    Marzhecki (Sergei) 4 November 2019 06: 52
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    Quote: 123
    In general, such experts you have. sad And based on their opinion, can you write an objective article?

    Still, after. In no way intending to protect any experts, I will say the following. Sometimes even a direct enemy can speak on business.
    And hanging labels on others, after which announcing everything they said is nonsense, is very simple.
    1. 123 Offline
      123 (123) 4 November 2019 09: 34
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      In no way intending to protect any experts

      And do not, not from anyone, they are like the elusive Joe. The fact is that, referring to the "authoritative" opinion of the scammers, you involuntarily cast doubt on what you wrote and show disrespect to the readers. It turns out - there are no other experts for you, eat what they give? yes

      Sometimes even a direct enemy can speak on business.

      Are you an enemy? smile

      It’s very simple to hang up labels on others, and then declare everything they said nonsense.

      Shortcuts? belay I showed you that this "expert" is not really such and is just lying to people. And after that I have to believe him?

      The last two years, the level of work of Roscosmos below the plinth. This is a complete lack of professionalism in organizing work.

      Is this not nonsense? Does it draw on a professional analysis of the activities of Roscosmos? Maybe someone will defend a dissertation on this fundamental scientific work?
      PS I’ve just started reading your article about the X-37B spacecraft, at first glance, there are no links to the “esteemed expert”. Then its "authoritative" about ending polymers is not required?
  8. gorenina91 Online
    gorenina91 (Irina) 4 November 2019 09: 11
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    - Personally, I’m here ... here ... here ... here on the site initially by itself ... And personally, I’m here "for no one" and "with no one" ...
    - As for the "Angara" and the fact that so treacherously and unexpectedly suddenly "threw orders and a contract" the whole Po "Flight" ... GKNPC them. M.V. Khrunicheva in Omsk will spill very soon into, to put it mildly ...- huge troubles for Russia itself ...
    - This is another wrecking and betrayal of Russia's interests at the state level ...
    - This has already happened with the Black Eagle tank, which could have been in the arsenal of the Russian Army for about 15 years .., but the enemies of Russia cleverly stole this whole thing ... and buried it ...
    - It’s easy to learn about the Black Eagle tank and see it for yourself (how this tank runs, jumps, shoots, etc.), finding material about it even in Yandex, even Google, etc ... - During this demonstrations all foreign observers were stunned ... from what they saw ....

    The Russian project of a promising main battle tank, developed in the 1990s by the Omsk Design Bureau of Transport Engineering. The prototype was first demonstrated in 1997 and was a modified chassis of the T-80U tank with a new design turret installed on it. Subsequently, a prototype was created with a tower mounted on a seven-roller chassis. Serially not produced.

    - But ... but ... but ..., then our Omsk Transport Engineering Plant (tank factory) was simply killed and turned into nothing ... and at the Uralvagonzavod in Yekaterinburg they started a long and endless fuss with " products "and" objects 95 ".... - And then there was an expensive" Armata "... -In short ...-" things and there "...
    - And today, our Russian Army is pleased even to have already "seen the tanks"
    ... these are the modernized T-72 and T-80U tanks (the T-80 is also a cool Omsk tank) ...
    - Like this...
    - And now "next in line" and "Angara" ... -so the enemies of Russia are acting quite successfully ...
    1. 123 Offline
      123 (123) 4 November 2019 09: 59
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      -As for the "Angara" and the fact that so treacherously and unexpectedly suddenly "threw orders and a contract" the whole Po "Flight"

      To be honest, I don’t think that they simply “threw” it, perhaps they didn’t arrange the characteristics of the rocket, the price, the quality. Perhaps the design itself needs to be improved while it was being done - it has become outdated and lags behind the latest foreign ones in terms of parameters. Or maybe the launch price is prohibitive, it has not yet been mass-produced. In general, I would like to hear the opinion of a person who understands these issues at a professional level. Most interesting. smile

      - But ... but ... but ..., then our "Omsk Transport Engineering Plant" (tank factory) was simply killed and turned into nothing ...

      The plant, of course, is a pity, but 2 plants are 2 different tanks. For Russia, this is an impermissible luxury; it was in the USSR that they could afford to adopt three different tanks at once. Which seems like a very controversial decision.

      in Yekaterinburg began a long and endless fuss with "products" and "objects 95"

      At that time, the tank simply had no chance of mass production, it simply did not have money. As now in Ukraine, they are trying to make some prototypes and that’s all. The fate of the Uralvagonzavod itself was also in question. Plant Director Vladimir Potkin literally saved the plant by signing a contract with India. Ultimately, it cost him his life, died in 1999. The tank was named after him "Vladimir". In such conditions, the Omsk plant simply did not have a chance.
      As for "Almaty", of course, I would like to see its mass production, but ... not a fact. So far they say that it is expensive and there is no urgent need for it. I do not think this is sabotage.
  9. Sergey Astashkin (Sergey Astashkin) 4 November 2019 10: 32
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    Stupid tales about effective managers .. How can a semi-literate lead ?! High-tech industries require an appropriately educated leader .. This is not for you to sell cars .. Capitalism destroys Russia. The whole world is turning into a cesspool.
    1. Arkharov Offline
      Arkharov (Grigory Arkharov) 4 November 2019 11: 18
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      Well, how does capitalism work wonderfully in other countries? And managers have enough education, and there are results. And in Russia, by the way, capitalism?
  10. Alexander Bushkovsky (Alexander) 4 November 2019 18: 50
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    And what to expect when in the management of ministries and state corporations are either cooks or janitors!
  11. DPN Offline
    DPN (DPN) 4 November 2019 21: 55
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    These are the benefits that the Khrunichev collective could be lured to SIBERIA, when almost the entire former USSR came to Moscow.