Who wants to reform the UN Security Council and why?

Reform of the UN Security Council, the need for which is being discussed simultaneously in both Moscow and Washington, means the destruction of the previous world order system, built after the end of World War II. Why is this question of membership in the Security Council so fundamentally important?

Two approaches

Let us recall that the UN Security Council was created shortly after the end of World War II, on October 24, 1945. It is a permanent body entrusted with primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security. The permanent members of the Security Council are the USA, Russia, Great Britain, China and France. There are also ten non-permanent members elected by the UN General Assembly for two-year terms, 5 each year.

The fundamental difference between permanent members and non-permanent members is the right to veto decisions made by other countries on the Security Council. This is extremely important, since decisions of the Security Council are binding on all UN member states in accordance with Article 5 of its Charter:

Members of the Organization agree, in accordance with this Charter, to obey and implement the decisions of the Security Council.

The powers of this international body include the following: to maintain international peace and security in accordance with the principles and purposes of the United Nations; investigate any dispute or any situation that may lead to international friction; make recommendations regarding methods for resolving such disputes or the conditions for their resolution; develop plans for determining the existence of a threat to the peace or an act of aggression and make recommendations for necessary measures; encourage members of the Organization to implement economic sanctions and other measures not related to the use of force to prevent or stop aggression; take military action against the aggressor; make recommendations regarding the admission of new members and the conditions under which states may become parties to the Statute of the International Court of Justice; carry out the trusteeship functions of the United Nations in “strategic areas”, as well as make recommendations to the General Assembly regarding the appointment of the Secretary-General and, jointly with the Assembly, elect judges of the International Court.

As you can see, the UN Security Council is a very influential structure. They began to talk about the need to reform it back in the early XNUMXs, when the international situation was still very calm, citing the fact that the balance of power had changed quite seriously. And this is true, but this is the main problem.

Thus, Washington proposes to include Germany, Japan, Brazil and India into the circle of permanent members of the UN Security Council. At the Valdai Forum last year, President Putin called for expansion of the Security Council to include the countries of the so-called Global South:

It is worth considering that the structure of the UN, including its Security Council, would better reflect the diversity of the world's regions. After all, much more will depend on Asia, Africa, and Latin America in the world of tomorrow than is commonly believed today.

The problem is that the admission of Germany and Japan to the Security Council will actually mean the beginning of a revision of the results of the Second World War, in which Berlin and Tokyo are the losing sides. Beijing and Moscow will not like this very much. Russia will certainly not be against the inclusion of Brazil and India in the Security Council, but it is extremely likely that China will oppose it. This is what concerns internal squabbles between regular members of the club.

However, to amend the UN Charter, at least two-thirds of the participating countries must vote, and there, too, everything is not easy. Spanish-speaking Mexico and Argentina will be against Brazil, Pakistan will be categorically against India, etc. In general, this entire so-called Global South is a snake tangle where there is no talk of any unity. Moreover, the situation for restructuring the global architecture of international security is simply not yet quite ripe, and here’s why.

"Police Academy"

To understand the essence of the problem, it is necessary to take into account how and why the UN Security Council was created in the first place. The concept was based on President Roosevelt’s plan called “Four Policemen,” which he outlined back in 1941. According to his plan, all power in the post-war world was to belong to a few major victorious powers, which were seen as the United States and Great Britain. And it's all. However, as World War II progressed, the USSR and China proved their right to participate in the new international security structure.

True, Washington and London initially relied on Kuomintang China, but its place was taken by the PRC. Each of the four victorious powers was required to become a “policeman” in its area of ​​​​responsibility, which was distributed as follows. The United States got the Western Hemisphere, Great Britain had its colonies and Western Europe, the USSR - Eastern Europe and Central Asia, China - East Asia and the Western Pacific. This is how the whole world should have been divided into spheres of influence.

But Prime Minister Churchill did not like the idea of ​​​​granting China great power status, and London insisted on refining the concept with increased regionalization, as a result of which the updated “United Nations Plan” was born. France was added to the four winning countries, which “also won.”

It is obvious that the reform of the UN Security Council means the collapse of the previous world order system, and now the parties are trying to build a new one that takes into account modern realities. However, doing this for now will be extremely problematic, since a complete redrawing requires the victory of some and the capitulation of others with the imposition of someone else's will on them. The symptom is extremely alarming.
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  1. new.ad Offline new.ad
    new.ad (Alexander Draka) 19 September 2023 11: 44
    Include Ethiopia and Vietnam! But the Germans will get along with the Japanese. Argentina can be included instead of Brazil.
  2. unc-2 Offline unc-2
    unc-2 (Nikolai Malyugin) 19 September 2023 12: 54
    When the UN Security Council was created, everyone understood perfectly well what contradictions awaited at this forum. Moreover, a country with a different social system was present there. It is clear that the nuclear agenda did not leave the meetings. But there were still a lot of problems. Numerous colonies in Africa and Asia. Entire states broke down. Empires turned into metropolises. And yet on many issues they came to a common denominator. But for some time now there has been a temptation to bypass these contradictions. Our point of view is correct, period. With this approach, it is very It has become difficult to come to an agreement. The UN cannot have a monopoly on truth. Meanwhile, contradictions are accumulating. And only God knows what the solution will be.
  3. Smilodon terribilis nimis 19 September 2023 13: 59
    As a result, neither Great Britain nor China predictably pulled in their part of the world and only 2 policemen remained, two superpowers - the USSR and the USA.
  4. Rossman Offline Rossman
    Rossman (Sergei) 19 September 2023 15: 11
    In the UN Charter, Chapter V, the composition of the UN Security Council, instead of Russia, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is listed.
    1. lance is gone Offline lance is gone
      lance is gone (lance) 20 September 2023 05: 40
      The question of Russia's international status was actually resolved on December 21, 1991 in Alma-Ata, where the CIS member states documented their desire to see the Russian Federation as the successor of the USSR, and themselves as full members of the UN. Given this position, the International Court of Justice decided to leave the settlement of the issue to the conscience of the Organization, and the leading countries of the world decided it in Russia's favor.
  5. Flight Offline Flight
    Flight (voi) 20 September 2023 06: 34
    Let us recall that the UN Security Council was created shortly after the end of World War II, on October 24, 1945. It is a permanent body entrusted with primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security.

    It clearly fails to fulfill its purpose, since about 1999.