Russian education: from the Bologna system to the Soviet past


The exclusion of the Russian Federation from the Bologna system once again brought to life a discussion about the ways of developing the education system in the country. The public consensus is still very far away, but the rejection of the "Bologna process" was met favorably by literally all interested parties, participants and observers. Even the most pro-Western voices on the defense of the Bologna system spoke in a restrained and alarming tone without radical forecasts.


What is the essence of the Bologna system?


The funny thing is that there is a great deal of literature on the Bologna system, which describes its history, the reform itself, and so on, but almost never talks about the essence of this "universalization of university education." Moreover, for most ordinary people, the Bologna system is, in fact, the hated USE, although it has nothing to do with it. People criticize the education system for being qualitatively inferior to the Soviet one in the output of “finished products”. Now graduates of schools and universities in terms of culture and education are several steps lower than in the 1980s. This is blamed on the Bologna system and the USE.

In reality, everything is somewhat more complicated. The essence of the "Bologna process" is to create a single educational space between different countries, thereby ensuring a relatively free movement of human resources and carrying out the overall management of education. In practice, this means policies draining brains from poorer countries to richer countries and promoting appropriate value and educational guidelines. Thus, the stronger states objectively benefit from the "Bologna process", while the weaker ones lose. The latter are losing talented students and teachers, and the natural connection between scientific schools and teaching is broken. It is no coincidence that eminent Western universities do not participate in the Bologna system, since they already have no end to applicants, and to introduce educational programs at the behest of European officials, and not on the basis of their own scientific developments, would harm their own prestige.

Thus, the accession of our country to the Bologna system can be considered an element of the comprador policy - an attempt to turn Russia into a resource appendage of Europe. However, the very implementation of the Bologna reform was actively sabotaged at all levels, its principles did not take root in universities, therefore, in fact, it did not achieve the designated goals. In reality, our universities followed the formal requirements of the "Bologna process", but continued to work in the old way. Everyone knows, for example, that we realized two Bologna levels by simply cutting off the last, fifth year of study: four courses are undergraduate, and the fifth is master's. Of course, such a "reform" was only to the detriment of education and greatly irritated all its participants.

Why was Soviet education better?


As for the decline in the quality of education compared to the Soviet one, it seems to me that it is not the order in which the education system is organized that plays an important role, but the role, place and tasks of education itself as a sphere of social life.

In the USSR, the state was the owner of all major manufacturing and service enterprises. In addition, it was ideological and dictatorial, it sought to manage society and direct social processes in accordance with its ideological guidelines. Therefore, the state education system tried to cover the process of socialization of a person as much as possible, to teach, educate him, make him a citizen and a patriot. The goals of Soviet education were dictated primarily by the applied tasks of developing the "national economy", and in addition to them there was a more general principle - to give the widest possible outlook to a person. This also had its practical significance, since it is easier to retrain a comprehensively developed person into a new profession, it is easier to make a leader out of him, he is generally a potentially more valuable resource for the state. All this had well-known “shortcomings”, such as a significantly lower degree of personal freedom, the inability to freely go abroad, and the absence of “monetary professions”.

When the Soviet education system was being destroyed, the main criticism came from the fact that the directive management of education was ineffective, it was necessary to let the market independently determine the needs of certain professions through the relationship of supply and demand. economics and society. Practice has shown the inconsistency of this criticism, since as a result not only the overall quality of education “at the exit” has decreased, but also imbalances have developed in the labor market. The country was gradually losing specialists in vital areas, littering the economy with a mass of workers, in fact, with a schoolboy outlook and “PC skills”. This is the very result of crossing education and the market.

The practice of education in the West has the same drawbacks - they are in desperate need of highly qualified specialists and people with a broad outlook who could easily master managerial skills. It was strange to copy and equal the Western system of education, the obvious inefficiency of which is manifested in the pumping of brains from poor countries put on stream. For example, America is the largest, most powerful and influential country in the world, but American education is so poor that in order to meet the needs for engineering, managerial and scientific personnel, it is forced to attract specialists from all over the world, seek out and transport talented children from Asia, Europe and Africa. . But, perhaps, there is nothing strange in this copying, because the Russian education system was created by people not in the interests of our people.

The Russian law on education correctly states that this is a socially significant good created in the interests of a person, family, society and the state, but in fact we have built a purely market education system in which the very process of socialization, education itself turns into a service, and students , their parents and students - into consumers. The state only regulates these "trade relations". Only now there has been some progress in understanding this issue.

Generally speaking, education is a special case of cognition; it must accompany a person throughout his life. Mastering all the intellectual wealth that humanity has developed is akin to mastering the achieved level of technical development of society, its material culture. Similar to Technology increase labor productivity, free a person from routine, speed up communication, mastering the achievements of spiritual culture leads to higher forms of activity. An intellectually developed person makes fewer mistakes and fusses, does what is necessary, and not what is fashionable or first comes to mind, realizes the priority of the general over the particular, the natural over the random.

All this contrasts sharply with the pragmatic approach to education, which involves the preparation of a narrow specialist striving for a high salary. The education system, in principle, is not capable of coping with tasks of this magnitude, since it only partially influences the formation of a person's personality. Society as a whole educates a person, the nature of the prevailing social relations and their atmosphere, and the particular tasks of the education system are to meet the needs of social development. The tasks set before the Russian education system are the same as for state institutions, when “social development” is reduced to GDP growth and social stability. Now life itself and the political situation are pushing our society to search for other, broader meanings.
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  1. k7k8 Offline k7k8
    k7k8 (vic) 10 June 2022 11: 57
    +1
    Why was Soviet education better?

    Do not idealize Soviet education. It also had a lot of shortcomings. Remember at least the heyday of Chumakovism and Kashpirovshchina. All apologists for anti-scientific movements and outright charlatanism were raised by the Soviet educational system. It is necessary to take the best from it and tie it to current realities. We do not need either the Soviet or the Bologna system in its purest form. It's time for the skulls to take over their heads and instead of a stupid cut of the budget dough, nevertheless, to develop a normal educational system.
  2. zzdimk Offline zzdimk
    zzdimk 10 June 2022 12: 00
    0
    My wife is the chairman of the subject commission for the Unified State Examination, and so, to put it mildly, she is indignant about the system for evaluating exam results. Today, for the delivery of Russian, literature, chemistry, mathematics, etc., you need to score from 7 to 11 primary points, with a maximum of 36 to 57, sort of. It turns out that you don’t need to learn anything, because by the method of scientific poke you will score a final score.
  3. Colonel Kudasov Offline Colonel Kudasov
    Colonel Kudasov (Leopold) 10 June 2022 12: 08
    +2
    In Soviet times, there was no such power of money as it is now. Therefore, I think that the education of the times of the USSR, returned at the moment, will not be effective
    1. zzdimk Offline zzdimk
      zzdimk 10 June 2022 12: 19
      -1
      Quote: Colonel Kudasov
      In Soviet times, there was no such power of money as it is now. Therefore, I think that the education of the times of the USSR, returned at the moment, will not be effective

      Was. And they also gave marks for social activity, for help in the country, for car repairs, for scarce goods and for perfumes, for crystal and porcelain. The advantage of Soviet education was in the mandatory distribution: you had to work off all the funds spent on your education.
      1. Colonel Kudasov Offline Colonel Kudasov
        Colonel Kudasov (Leopold) 10 June 2022 12: 53
        +3
        I graduated from a Soviet university and did NOT encounter anything like this. He did not give anything to anyone, he did not repair any cars, he did not work at the dachas of teachers. If he failed a test or an exam, then on business. I was well prepared for the entrance exams and got the grades I expected. I saw ads where they offered to make a graduation project for money, but I didn’t use it, I did it myself. Probably someone used but I did not know such. The distribution was according to academic performance, all according to garlic, it was necessary to work for 3 years, but of course there were no “deductions for higher education”
        1. zzdimk Offline zzdimk
          zzdimk 10 June 2022 13: 09
          0
          There have always been those who were outside the system. I'm not talking about the fact that everyone did it. It was. It was real.
          1. Just a cat Online Just a cat
            Just a cat (Bayun) 10 June 2022 14: 30
            0
            those who were outside the system did not go to arteks, but at best in the summer they went to school or sat at home for an after-school program ... and for those who were in the system, scarce goods were brought directly to their homes.
    2. k7k8 Offline k7k8
      k7k8 (vic) 10 June 2022 15: 15
      +3
      There were many good things in Soviet education. First of all, it was distinguished by its encyclopedic and academic character. In Soviet universities, they were always taught to study independently. This then carried over to work. Now, many universities are sliding down to the level of coaching, as a result of which we get a lot of "bearded children" who believe that everyone is obliged to them.
    3. k7k8 Offline k7k8
      k7k8 (vic) 10 June 2022 15: 41
      0
      In Soviet times, there was no such power of money as it is now.

      That is why the USE system should be preserved. It allows children from low-income strata of society to enter universities without father / mother connections and bribes. The computer that checks the completed forms does not care deeply about blat and money.
  4. k7k8 Offline k7k8
    k7k8 (vic) 10 June 2022 15: 07
    0
    Quote: zzdimk
    after all, by the method of scientific poke you will score a graduation score

    We have had this system for a long time. It's called Centralized Testing. The method proposed by you was tried to be applied in practice. I can assure you, it practically does not work (especially since the form has two sections - one, so to speak, is based on mechanical knowledge, and the other on creative thinking. And to get decent points, you need to score well in both sections). And even if you score graduation points in this way, they still won’t be enough to enter a university.
  5. k7k8 Offline k7k8
    k7k8 (vic) 10 June 2022 15: 09
    +2
    Quote: zzdimk
    The advantage of Soviet education was in the mandatory distribution

    In the Republic of Belarus, this principle has been preserved for those who studied on the budget. Of course, you can ignore the distribution, but in this case, every penny of the cost of training will be recovered from the objector.
  6. ALEXANDER UNKNOWN 10 June 2022 20: 06
    +2
    They won’t oppose anything, they will leave Bologna, they will only “optimize” it into a wild minus with “improvers”, etc., the gut is thin.
  7. 1_2 Offline 1_2
    1_2 (Ducks are flying) 11 June 2022 00: 40
    +3
    Soviet education was free, that is, it was impossible to "buy" a diploma by enrolling in paid education, of course there was corruption and some mediocre bosses and party nomenclature entered and successfully passed all tests for bribes, but the scale of corruption was an order of magnitude lower with the advent of Western liberalism a diploma has become a legal commodity, factories have gone bankrupt, and in order to resell foreign junk, you don’t need any knowledge at all, it’s enough to have a purchased diploma from a tower, and some directors of firms’ traders require it to seem important to themselves, like I have a serious company and not a stall with vocational schools ))

    in order to get a specialist now, you need an order from the state for him, so that the student knows that he will not go to resell panties to china, but will work at a stable large state-owned enterprise (its division), with a full social package, and a stable good salary + housing when he starts a family and will give birth to a child, then the student will gnaw science to get a place. but none of the bureaucrats even plans to promise any of this, everything will remain as it was, only now there will be no 4 years of bachelors)) they will pay 5 years to get a diploma) and then ... resell underpants, since they also do not plan to nationalize the property of the oligarchs , and Rostec is not enough for all the specialists
  8. argo44 Offline argo44
    argo44 (mac) 11 June 2022 23: 27
    0
    dobre uwagi