What opportunities will Russia get thanks to mini-nuclear power plants


While radical ecologists dream of a complete rejection of fossil fuels, serious people are engaged in the development of nuclear energy, behind which experts see the real future of world energy. However, most likely, these will not be huge nuclear power plants with a silhouette familiar to the eye, expensive and time-consuming to build, but mini-nuclear power plants. The race for the right to be the first in this promising new market has already begun, and Russia is taking an active part in it.


First, it is necessary to indicate what exactly is the superiority of mini-nuclear power plants over conventional ones. The main paradox of traditional nuclear power plants is that the electricity they generate is the cheapest of all, but only a very few countries can take advantage of this advantage due to the extreme high cost of the power plant. It takes a long time to build it, it is expensive, the spent nuclear fuel must be disposed of, it requires constant maintenance with the involvement of exclusively highly qualified specialists. Only a few countries in the world, including ours, have the relevant competencies to build nuclear power plants, and very few states can afford this pleasure.

However, the global energy crisis in all its glory has demonstrated the danger of dependence exclusively on renewable sources (RES). Turkey asks Rosatom to build two more new nuclear power plants for it. France announced its intention to resume construction of nuclear power plants. Finland is holding on to its old Soviet-designed nuclear power plant, constantly extending its operating life, while building a modern one at the same time. But how many other countries in the world are in no less need of cheap, environmentally friendly electricity, but the services of Rosatom and its foreign competitors are simply too expensive for them?

A good solution could be the construction of mini-nuclear power plants, "land" or floating. Technology mass production of small modular reactors will reduce the cost of power plants for customers and make "green kilowatts" available. For comparison, the cost of a conventional reactor alone is $ 4-5 billion, but a mini-reactor will cost from $ 300 to $ 500 million. Let's see how Russian and foreign nuclear scientists work in this direction.

Rosatom


Our great hope is the RITM-200 pressurized water reactor, developed at the II Afrikantov OKBM. This power plant was created for use on icebreakers LK-60Ya (project 22220), but can also be used on floating nuclear power plants. The thermal power of this reactor is 175 MW, the power on the shaft of the propulsion system is 30 MW (in the transport version) or 55 MW of electric power (in the power version). The service life is 40 years, the fuel will be reloaded every 7 years. In order to comply with the nonproliferation principle, uranium enrichment is limited to 20%. RHYTHM-200 will open up a lot of new opportunities for Russia.

At first, mini-nuclear power plants can be built in remote regions of our country where there is a need for electricity, but the construction of a large nuclear power plant is impractical. For example, when developing deposits and processing resources at ore mining and processing enterprises in sparsely populated regions of the Far North, Siberia or the Far East.

Secondly, Rosatom will receive an excellent export product. Thus, the market for the sale of nuclear energy can be the countries of Southeast Asia and the entire Pacific region as a whole. As you know, the gas there is very expensive, the coal is “scandalized” by environmentalists. But an adequate alternative could be a floating nuclear power plant, which will connect to the appropriate onshore infrastructure and start supplying cheap electricity to consumers. Seven years later, it will sail on its own to reload spent fuel, and another mini-nuclear power plant can replace it. Since it is dangerous to sell such technologies, Russia will have to own and maintain floating power plants and could become an even larger player in the global electricity market.

However, our competitors are also on the alert.

USA


The American company NuScale Power is working on a mini-nuclear power plant project with modular light water reactors for power supply, district heating, desalination, etc. A nuclear power plant of this type will be able to accommodate up to 12 NuScale Power Modules, each generating up to 60 MW of energy. By the way, in Ukraine they are thinking about switching to American mini-nuclear power plants after the resource of Soviet nuclear power plants is exhausted. This was stated by the head of NNEGC "Energoatom" Petr Kotin:

We are pleased to start cooperation with the American company - the developer of small modular reactors NuScale Power. It is currently the only technology licensed by the world's most reputable US regulatory authority. We are considering the possibility of building SMRs for their use to replace carbon thermal power plants and increase shunting capacities in the United Energy System of Ukraine.

United Kingdom


The United Kingdom is also looking towards mini-nuclear power plants. The island state provides about 20% of its energy balance at the expense of nuclear power plants. However, the problem is that 6 out of 7 reactors operating there will have reached their end of life by 2030.

For this reason, the famous British company Rolls-Royce has taken over the UK SMR consortium, which plans to build at least 16 mini-nuclear power plants in the country with modular reactors with a capacity of 440 MW each. The British also want to mass-produce modular reactors for their own needs and for export. In 10 years, they expect to reach the launch level of 2 mini-nuclear power plants per year.

Today our country is one of the recognized world leaders in nuclear energy. The implementation of the mini-NPP project will allow it to consolidate and strengthen its position in the market.
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  1. Bakht Offline Bakht
    Bakht (Bakhtiyar) 7 December 2021 16: 07
    +3
    Not a bad idea. But what about the service? Many mini-NPPs require a lot of specialists. Plus safety .... It seems to me that it will be more difficult to ensure the safety of hundreds of mini-nuclear power plants.
    1. Marzhecki Offline Marzhecki
      Marzhecki (Sergei) 7 December 2021 16: 08
      +1
      Only the state as an owner, PMCs in protection, if they work abroad.
      1. Bakht Offline Bakht
        Bakht (Bakhtiyar) 7 December 2021 16: 18
        +3
        I'm talking about energy security. We need specialists who can work at these nuclear power plants.
        Which, in principle, is not bad. Institutes will work, jobs will appear. You just need to prepare for this.
        And yes. Security is also not the last thing. To be honest, it was always incomprehensible to me why such a floating nuclear power plant could not be brought to the shores of the Crimea? In addition to the far North and in the Crimea, there seems to be a tension with electricity. And such an installation can be powered for water desalination.
        1. gunnerminer Offline gunnerminer
          gunnerminer (gunner miner) 7 December 2021 16: 34
          -10
          It’s not even funny about providing energy to Crimea. You just don't tell the Crimeans how it was "without problems" and "quickly." Worse only with water and sewerage - in seven years without real progress. And for what money? Discussing unprofitability, danger, expediency of the project itself. Considering all sorts of "Poseidons", "Petrels", "bases on the Moon", it is somehow too much expensive, and it is not clear what the necessary projects are for. We are not the United States or even South Korea, the standard of living is lower. Maybe it's better to get involved in the economy?
          1. boriz Offline boriz
            boriz (boriz) 7 December 2021 17: 18
            +4
            ... somehow a bit too much expensive, and it is not clear what the necessary projects are for.

            This is only incomprehensible to you.
            Many countries only dream of such facilities, but Lomonosov has been working for us for a long time. And then this industry develops.
            And in the post I mentioned the already operating Akademik Lomonosov AES, I didn’t find anything, everything about the prospects of the NPP in the World Bank and other Naglo-Saxons.
            1. gunnerminer Offline gunnerminer
              gunnerminer (gunner miner) 7 December 2021 18: 20
              -7
              If they dreamed, they would buy. The NPP was built for Sevmash. Then they reoriented to export.
              1. boriz Offline boriz
                boriz (boriz) 7 December 2021 20: 41
                +4
                Not everyone is able to buy what they dream of. It would be more profitable for the Czech Republic to build a nuclear power plant by Rosatom. At their factories, they produce many components for our nuclear power plants, up to the reactor vessels. But it is not for this that they are paid subsidies from the EU and fed up to politicians. And Rosatom was excluded from the tender.
                Estonia really wants to build a mini nuclear power plant. But he is not considering an appeal to Rosatom. And it’s easier to build a land-based mini-nuclear power plant than a floating one.
                Ukraine is also considering options for a mini-nuclear power plant. Except Russian ones.
                Politics above economics.
                1. gunnerminer Offline gunnerminer
                  gunnerminer (gunner miner) 7 December 2021 21: 42
                  -7
                  Loot does not triumph over evil.
                  1. boriz Offline boriz
                    boriz (boriz) 8 December 2021 01: 22
                    +2
                    It's just that some leaders think about the interests of their peoples (for example, Erdogan, Orban), while others lack either mental ability or independence in decisions.
                    1. gunnerminer Offline gunnerminer
                      gunnerminer (gunner miner) 8 December 2021 13: 48
                      -2
                      Yes, there is such a thing. Against the background of the ongoing crisis, such leaders look especially prominent.
    2. gunnerminer Offline gunnerminer
      gunnerminer (gunner miner) 7 December 2021 16: 26
      -9
      Many countries refuse from nuclear power plants because of the complex and costly maintenance, the same expensive waste disposal.
    3. Vladislav N. Offline Vladislav N.
      Vladislav N. (Vlad) 7 December 2021 17: 08
      0
      Many mini-nuclear power plants need a lot of specialists

      there is a silver lining - a good incentive to cancel the Unified State Exam in order to train specialists and not different merchandisers.
  2. Marzhecki Offline Marzhecki
    Marzhecki (Sergei) 7 December 2021 16: 18
    +3
    Quote: Bakht
    To be honest, it was always incomprehensible to me why such a floating nuclear power plant could not be brought to the shores of the Crimea?

    Straits.
    1. Bakht Offline Bakht
      Bakht (Bakhtiyar) 7 December 2021 16: 31
      +2
      Yes, the straits. But I think this could be resolved with Turkey. But if they don't, then there are reasons.
    2. mark1 Offline mark1
      mark1 7 December 2021 16: 43
      0
      Quote: Marzhetsky
      Quote: Bakht
      To be honest, it was always incomprehensible to me why such a floating nuclear power plant could not be brought to the shores of the Crimea?

      Straits.

      No problem - overtake without fuel. "Sevmorput" perfectly passed the straits.
      1. Marzhecki Offline Marzhecki
        Marzhecki (Sergei) 7 December 2021 19: 01
        0
        So here the meaning is the opposite: to introduce through the straits into the Black Sea a floating power plant with reactors loaded with fuel. Or where, in Kerch, to load them or what?
        1. mark1 Offline mark1
          mark1 8 December 2021 10: 11
          0
          Quote: Marzhetsky
          Or where, in Kerch, to load them or what?

          Yes. And what is wrong?
          1. Marzhecki Offline Marzhecki
            Marzhecki (Sergei) 8 December 2021 11: 50
            0
            Are there no restrictions on the basing of nuclear powered ships in peaceful ports? Because of this, the Nimitz cannot enter them. And here you propose to put a floating power plant near the cities of the resort Crimea.
            1. mark1 Offline mark1
              mark1 8 December 2021 20: 48
              0
              Everywhere in different ways, the locals decide. A floating power plant is not necessarily in the port (although Sevastopol is also, you know, a port), you can find a bay (even make it). Does the idea of ​​a Crimean nuclear power plant bother you? And then there is a seismic hazard.
  3. gunnerminer Offline gunnerminer
    gunnerminer (gunner miner) 7 December 2021 16: 25
    -9
    Today our country is one of the recognized world leaders in nuclear energy. The implementation of the mini-NPP project will allow it to consolidate and strengthen its position in the market.

    It is a pity that the Czech government did not appreciate this quality.

    But an adequate alternative could be a floating nuclear power plant, which will connect to the appropriate onshore infrastructure and start supplying cheap electricity to consumers.

    Potential buyers are intimidated by the costs of maintenance and waste disposal, which are neither easy nor cheap to solve. The project "Akademik Lomonosov" has been repeatedly criticized because of its considerable cost, which also increased during the construction period. he asked toast, "Who is so smart who thought of building a nuclear power plant here." An official of such a level did not come to the opening of the floating nuclear power plant. The population from those parts of Siberia and the Far East is constantly knocking down, for whom is the floating nuclear power plant there? Back in 2007, German Gref, then the Minister of Economy, said that the cost of kW * h produced by this nuclear power plant will be twice as expensive as at a thermal power plant in the same region. For all his shortcomings, he always counted money correctly. And the cost of the Lomonosov project itself has more than tripled since 2007. The Lomonosov NPP will not be able to replace the Bilibino NPP due to the remoteness from Bilibino, the construction of power lines and, moreover, heating mains in Bilibino, will make the specified energy golden in the literal sense of the word. Not a very good advertisement for potential buyers. They read newspapers.

    Turkey asks Rosatom to build two more new nuclear power plants for it.

    At Russian expense, as in Akuya, why not ask.

    The fact that nothing similar to our floating nuclear power plant is being built abroad speaks not of their technological lag, but of the economic inexpediency of this project and its initial unprofitableness. The success of an enterprise in the 21st century is well characterized by the desire of investors to participate in a profitable business and get paid for it. Unfortunately, the problem is that conventional nuclear power plants are initially built with an infrastructure designed for recharging reactors "on site" (after all, it is physically impossible to "overtake" a stationary nuclear power plant to the place of recharging). Due to this, construction becomes more expensive, and operation becomes cheaper. In the case of a floating nuclear power plant, this is not possible. Such equipment is not very cheap, and taking into account delivery to remote areas by air, it literally becomes golden.
    1. 123 Offline 123
      123 (123) 7 December 2021 18: 41
      +4
      It is a pity that the Czech government did not appreciate this quality.

      Aha yes Now the Czechs are paying the price for his stupidity.

      the price per megawatt-hour of electricity, including the supply for the next year, increased 2,5 times during 2021; gas growth tripled.

      https://english.radio.cz/other-suppliers-follow-suit-cez-announces-price-increase-8733103
      True, it's not only about them, they are no longer against it, but ... the opposition and the greens are putting a spoke in their wheels

      The Czech nuclear regulator has paved the way for the construction of new reactor units at the Dukovany nuclear power plant. But the government's nuclear plans are facing opposition from many quarters.

      https://www.dw.com/en/czech-nuclear-energy-ambitions-face-stiff-tests/a-56793586

      Potential buyers are intimidated by the costs of maintenance and waste disposal, which are neither easy nor cheap to solve.

      Everything is included in the contract. Turnkey NPP Everything is done by Rosatom, it builds, if necessary, operates, and removes the spent fuel for reprocessing. The price is more attractive than that of competitors and decently attractive.

      The project "Akademik Lomonosov" has been repeatedly criticized because of its considerable cost, which, moreover, has grown during the construction period.

      Practically all things Russian are criticized, this is a common thing. "Lomonosov" is the first pilot project. The following are being built according to an improved design. All countries, rich and not so, care about the price of electricity. spenders, as a rule, do not stay rich for long in this world.

      Gromyko came to open the Bilibino nuclear power plant, he was gloomy, at the banquet then instead of a toast he asked, "Who is clever who thought of building a nuclear power plant here?"

      Now nothing has to be built on site (except for the coastal infrastructure), it is much cheaper and easier.

      The population from those parts of Siberia and the Far East is knocking down non-stop, for whom there is a floating nuclear power plant?

      The economy of the Arctic region is developing, it needs more energy. One of the blocks is planned to be installed at a new copper deposit.

      German Gref, then the Minister of Economy, said that the cost of kW * h produced by this nuclear power plant would be twice as expensive as that of a thermal power plant in the same region. For all his shortcomings, he always counted money correctly. And the cost of the Lomonosov project itself has more than tripled since 2007.

      The rise in the cost of projects is a common thing and not only in our country. Time goes by, you know inflation.

      The Lomonosov NPP will not be able to replace the Bilibino NPP due to the remoteness from Bilibino, the construction of power lines and, moreover, heating mains in Bilibino, will make the specified energy golden in the literal sense of the word. Not a very good advertisement for potential buyers. They read newspapers.

      How strange. But Rosatom claims that it will replace the Bilibino nuclear power plant. Have you read the Ukrainian press again before dinner? laughing



      At Russian expense, as in Akuya, why not ask.

      Building on credit is a common thing.

      The fact that nothing similar to our floating nuclear power plant is being built abroad does not indicate their technological backwardness, but precisely the economic inexpediency of this project and its initial unprofitableness.

      This speaks precisely of the technological lag. They simply cannot build something. They even have the usual problems, construction is being delayed, this leads to higher prices. hence the loss.

      Due to this, construction becomes more expensive, and operation becomes cheaper. In the case of a floating nuclear power plant, this is not possible. Such equipment is not very cheap, and taking into account delivery to a remote area by air, it literally becomes golden.

      What do you mean impossible? How did she get to the place? Why is it impossible to overtake it for recharging?
      1. gunnerminer Offline gunnerminer
        gunnerminer (gunner miner) 7 December 2021 20: 06
        -8
        The price is more attractive than that of competitors and decently attractive.

        Due to low labor costs for workers.

        Why is it impossible to overtake it for recharging?

        Because it’s expensive. ”

        This speaks precisely of the technological lag. They simply cannot build something. They even have the usual problems, construction is being delayed, this leads to higher prices. hence the loss.

        What sweet treacle on the wounded heart of the Nullins.

        Building on credit is a common thing.

        The nuclear power plant in Akyuya is not being built on credit, at Russian expense, so that the transit for Khmeimim is not blocked.

        - But Rosatom claims that it will replace the Bilibino nuclear power plant. Have you read the Ukrainian press again before dinner? -

        The date for replacing the Bilibino NPP has been postponed eight times, and now it has been shifted to 2025.

        The rise in the cost of projects is a common thing and not only in our country. Time goes by, you know inflation.

        Russian inflation is high. Approximately 20%. OSK feels this in full. Repair of TARKR Nakhimov soared in price. It was possible to build a new TRACR. Submarine K-561 has risen in price by five times.

        The economy of the Arctic region is developing, it needs more energy. One of the blocks is planned to be installed at a new copper deposit.

        There are no facts. The population is fleeing the Arctic region. Murmansk is bent over. The container factory has stopped. The fish factory has stopped. The berths of the Fish Port are half empty. The ships left for Norway 20 years ago. The Murmansk Shipping Company went bankrupt. They are fleeing from Norilsk and other settlements.
  4. boriz Offline boriz
    boriz (boriz) 7 December 2021 17: 20
    +3
    The race for the right to be the first in this promising new market has already begun, and Russia is taking an active part in it.

    Is it okay that Russia is leading this race by 2 corps? There is not a word about the Akademik Lomonosov floating nuclear power plant in the post.
  5. gorenina91 Offline gorenina91
    gorenina91 (Irina) 7 December 2021 19: 15
    -5
    What opportunities will Russia get thanks to mini-nuclear power plants

    - In a recent related topic:

    Mobile nuclear power plants will provide Russia with access to Arctic gold deposits

    - personally, I have already spoken about this:

    - Ha, personally I have already written about this floating nuclear power plant "Akademik Lomonosov", which is in Chukotka ...
    - and offered to drive it to the shores of the Crimea (it was then about desalination of the Black Sea water in order to solve the problem of supplying fresh water to the Crimea Peninsula ... - Well, of course - then in the Black Sea, in the Crimea itself and throughout the region - right away there would appear "another problem" ... - and it is still unknown - which of them is more "sad" ...
    - Well, in the meantime, Chukotka is not reliably "guarded" by this floating nuclear power plant "Akademik Lomonosov" ... - Now it is unlikely that any of the enemies will want to poke their heads on the Chukotka Peninsula with "bad intentions" (just kidding) ......

    - And to all this I can only add that ... what ... what:
    1. gorenina91 Offline gorenina91
      gorenina91 (Irina) 7 December 2021 19: 38
      -5
      - That the topic of "mini-nuclear power plants" has practically been reduced to the topic - about specifically floating "mini-nuclear power plants" ...
      - Well, why not then reduce the topic of floating "mini-nuclear power plants" ... - to the topic - "Is it possible to use everything that only works at nuclear reactors - to the problem of using nuclear icebreakers, military nuclear submarines (nuclear submarines ) and others that have lost their functional purpose (due to "length of service" or moral obsolescence) - a floating "nuclear arsenal" - in order to adapt it as a "performance of the functions" of a kind of "mini-nuclear power plant" (or simply - " mini diesel generators; TPP "and so on) ....
      - And there is no need to rush to recognize such a "version" as absurd ...
      - So many decommissioned submarines have already accumulated - they just do not have time to cut them ... - So to assemble from several boats at once - floating power plants ... - this is such a "diesel flotilla" (well, or "nuclear" or even "hybrid" - "diesel -atomic ") and could be useful in the Crimea (freshening, generating electricity, etc.) ... - For some urgent tasks where electricity is needed, such a" variance "is also suitable ...
      - Yes, why was the nuclear icebreaker "Lenin" so quickly "written off" ??? - Did he smoke like "Admiral Kuznetsov", or what ??? - Joke...
      1. gunnerminer Offline gunnerminer
        gunnerminer (gunner miner) 7 December 2021 20: 07
        -7
        The consequences of the careless operation of nuclear-powered ships in the Arctic will be eliminated for more than a hundred years. One base in Andreeva Bay is worth a lot.
        1. gorenina91 Offline gorenina91
          gorenina91 (Irina) 7 December 2021 20: 27
          -7
          The consequences of the careless operation of nuclear-powered ships in the Arctic will be eliminated for more than a hundred years. One base in Andreeva Bay is worth a lot.

          - Yes, I have already spoken out ... - Now not a single enemy will stick in there ...

          - Well, in the meantime, Chukotka is not reliably "guarded" by this floating nuclear power plant "Akademik Lomonosov" ... - Now it is unlikely that any of the enemies will want to poke their heads on the Chukotka Peninsula with "bad intentions" (just kidding) ......

          - My pluses to you ...
          1. gunnerminer Offline gunnerminer
            gunnerminer (gunner miner) 7 December 2021 21: 38
            -4
            Mutually, it is.