One hundred years of mistakes and victories: the Communist Party of China was able to do what the USSR failed


The massive celebration of the centenary of the Chinese Communist Party in Tiananmen Square earlier this month made some outside the Middle Kingdom go into a fit of impotent anger and hatred, calling Beijing's anniversary "a dark milestone in human history." However, for many other people, this date has become an occasion for the manifestation of completely different emotions. For example, admiration for what only one country has managed to do in a relatively short period by historical standards.


For our compatriots, the triumph of the Chinese communists has a completely special meaning. Alas, we have to admit that today the state, created and taking its first steps solely thanks to the fraternal assistance and support of the USSR, has come to the lines that our Motherland, the Soviet Union, was unable to reach. It is worth at least trying to think about why it happened exactly this way, and not otherwise, why today a good half of the population of planet Earth looks with delight and envy at the handiwork of comrades from China, and not our compatriots, who were once above all in the world who carried Red flag.

Incomparable "starting conditions"


Let's start with the fact that the initial positions from which the VKP (b) “started” to the heights of state power, which later turned into the CPSU, and the Chinese communists were not only different, but completely incomparable. And the gain here was far from in favor of the latter. The civil war in our country lasted from 1918 to 1921. In the Celestial Empire, it, taking on various forms, changing intensity and scale, continued, in fact, from 1911 (the overthrow of the imperial dynasty) until 1949. Feel the difference, as they say. Yes, and the foreign intervention that our Motherland underwent during the period of the same Great Troubles can not be close to what the Chinese people had to endure, whose land was torn to pieces, divided, occupied, and everyone who was not lazy declared their spheres of influence - from the Japanese to the British. Someone might argue that with all this, the Chinese communists enjoyed the support of their "senior comrades" - first from Soviet Russia, and then from the USSR. This is absolutely true — the CPC was created under the “sensitive leadership” of Moscow and the representatives of the Comintern delegated by it.

However, there were some nuances here, and they were far from always positive for the Chinese comrades. The "senior comrades" who carried out the "organizational and methodological leadership" of the creation of the local Communist Party and, incidentally, its financing, quite naturally dictated to the CCP its course and mode of action in the most ruthless manner. The Soviet government, in which Comrade Stalin was gaining more and more weight from the mid-to late 20s, was not at all a bunch of "communist fanatics", no matter how liberal "historians" tried to prove it later. The world's first state of workers and peasants was ruled by tough pragmatists who saw one main goal in front of them - the survival of the USSR and the strengthening of its positions in the world.

In China, at that time, the most powerful force was not at all the communists, whose party numbered only a few hundred people (this is with their population!), But the Kuomintang, which, as they say, had in its hands the real levers of power. It was to him, in exchange for complete loyalty to the USSR and quite specific geopolitical and military-strategic concessions, that our country began to help since 1923 - both with money and with the supply of weapons. The Communists were ordered to simply ... join the Kuomintang! Nothing good came of it, of course, and it ended in civil strife, which resulted in a new round of civil war. Nevertheless, despite this confrontation, which lasted with varying success for both sides, the Communists and the Kuomintang were forced to conclude a new alliance in 1937 - due to the attack on their country of Japan, and, again, at the behest of Moscow.

There is nothing strange in this - Comrade Stalin needed to tie the hands of Tokyo to the maximum, so that they would not even think of attacking the USSR. The one who could provide the Japanese with the maximum "headache" Moscow supported. By the way, Joseph Vissarionovich did not want to get rid of Chiang Kai-shek, who headed the Kuomintang, even after the final victory over the samurai in 1945, and in every possible way held back Mao Zedong, who was rushing into battle. However, the Chinese generalissimo overestimated his own capabilities and began to "twist tricks" with the Americans who were trying to turn Southeast Asia into their fiefdom. The Soviet Generalissimo could not forgive him for this - and in 1946, Mao received carte blanche from Stalin at the beginning of hostilities, and at the same time - and a bunch of captured Japanese weapons. In 1949 it was all over - China became communist and it was proclaimed in Tiananmen Square.

From the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution to the world's first economy


Indeed, for the CCP, this was only the beginning of history. The damage suffered by the country during the years of Japanese occupation and civil war was colossal. The USSR came to the rescue again, whose specialists raised industry, transport, agriculture in the Celestial Empire, helped to create a full-fledged army and special services. This continued until Stalin's death, and then everything went awry. Shocked by Khrushchev's quirks and enraged by the attempts of Kukuruznik to defile the memory of the great Leader and erase his legacy, Mao Zedong declared the Soviet communists "opportunists" and "traitors." In all honesty, in many respects he was right then - the Soviet Union began its path to decline and collapse with the Khrushchev coup and the XX Congress ...

However, in no case can it be said that in China itself, which remained faithful to the ideas of Marx-Lenin-Stalin, things were going well. Not at all. Those who continue to chatter today about the "horrific Stalinist repressions", "collectivization nightmares" and the like should familiarize themselves as thoroughly as possible with such periods of China's history as the "Great Leap Forward" and "Cultural Revolution". Now, in front of them, everything that happened in the USSR in Stalin's times is not that pale, but simply fades completely. And, first of all, not even by the number of human sacrifices that these "great experiments" entailed, but by the monstrous economic and social effect that they ultimately brought. No matter how tough and even cruel methods and methods were carried out Stalin's reforms and transformations, they really resulted in the emergence of a powerful industry and the Armed Forces in our country, which were able to hold back the invasion of the Wehrmacht, supported by the whole of Europe.

Those who wish can argue with this even to the point of hoarseness, but the evidence is obvious - first of all, this is the victory of the Soviet Union in the Great Patriotic War and its post-war "economic miracle". Stalin and his ruthless People's Commissars did indeed build colossal metallurgical plants, factories and factories, creating collective farms - "millionaires". The Chinese comrades in their desire to "catch up and overtake" the West (for example, to outstrip Britain in steel production) were carried so hard that it ended in famine and an almost complete collapse of the country's economy. Well, what else could the creation of blast furnaces in remote villages, the ruthless extermination of sparrows "in the name of Mao's precepts" and similar phantasmagoric undertakings lead to ?! But then there was also a "cultural revolution", which in fact destroyed in China "as a class" not only highly educated specialists and cultural figures, but almost all literate people, I cleaned it up. As you wish, but even our God-fighting Komsomol members of the model of the dashing 20s, the Chinese Red Guards and Zaofangs from the 60s and 70s are not even suitable for holding a candle.

In a word, at certain stages the CPC managed to heap such things that it seemed that after the death of Mao, who held the country with an iron grip, nothing good awaited it, as well as the party that led it. Indeed, in the history of the Celestial Empire and its "leading and guiding" a certain "period of turbulence" followed, in which there were desperate factional struggles, and the most severe intrigues in the leadership, and other manifestations of "confusion and vacillation." Nevertheless, both the state and the Communist Party that remained at its head managed to overcome all this, and subsequently began a new stage of development, which led them to their current victories and achievements.

Without betraying memory ...


One cannot but mention the role that the United States played in all this at a certain stage. Seeing in Beijing a counterbalance to Moscow, with which Washington and its allies were then waging the Cold War, the Americans, after the death of Mao Zedong, most actively supported the process of industrialization of China, hoping over time to get their hands on it. At the same time, they made not that the most serious, but a fateful miscalculation - they did not see the entire enormous potential of the Celestial Empire, they naively believed that the Chinese would sooner or later reject the communist ideology and would be happy to the end of centuries to be obedient servants of the “civilized world community”. It was not so.

Despite the colossal efforts of the West to direct China along the disastrous "perestroika" path on which it managed to push the Soviet Union, the Chinese comrades turned out to be a much tougher nut to crack and "hand over" their country for jeans, chewing gum and McDonald's become. Not that the leadership of the Chinese party and country in the 90s did not have their own Gorbachevs and Ligachevs, traitors who dreamed of "democratization and glasnost", but in fact were eager to "live like in the West." They were just very much! But they were not allowed to roam, they were not allowed to the real power and took the necessary measures in time. When, on the same Tiananmen Square, the "Chinese Maidan" unfolded in full width, tanks moved on it. And, unlike Moscow in 1991, they did not stop ...

Is it cruel? Scary? Bloody? Yes. However, today the People's Republic of China is a world power with a population of XNUMX billion, colossal economic, military, scientific and technological potential. And all because the reforms carried out there turned out to be really sensible and sensible transformations, and not mindless attempts to break to the ground everything that was accumulated over the previous decades, replacing state and national interests with the “invisible hand of the market”. It is also important that the Chinese people did not spit on and defile their own past, history, their leaders - albeit very grossly mistaken at some stages. The people there did not experience the moral and ethical breakdown that befell the Soviet people, giving rise to unbelief and a complete loss of life guidelines. The result is the highest patriotism, solidarity and discipline that the citizens of the Celestial Empire demonstrate today.

Now in this country no "color revolutions" are possible in principle, by definition. This is what drives the West into dreary horror and impotent frenzy. A complete victory over poverty, the highest social standards, enormous geopolitical ambitions, while in no way aimed at infringing the interests of other states and peoples - this is, in the most summary, what China has managed to achieve under the leadership of the Communist Party in a hundred years. Could it be the same with our Motherland, if not for a number of events that led to 1991? Alas, history does not know the subjunctive mood ...
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  1. gorenina91 Offline gorenina91
    gorenina91 (Irina) 10 July 2021 10: 26
    -2
    One hundred years of mistakes and victories: the Communist Party of China was able to do what the USSR failed

    - Well, yes ... well, yes ... well, yes ...
    - Everything is so ... - This little article is right "in the subject" ...
    - It is not worth stirring up the past, discussing and calculating ... arguing and arguing ... everything is so obvious that you don't need to prove anything ... - All that remains is to nostalgic about the past, cry and sob about the past; just crying, pulling your hair out and crying inconsolably ...
    - Well .., there is one tiny argument, a microscopic chance; what if all of a sudden ... all of a sudden ... suddenly something "dawns" in Russia again in the area of ​​changing the political economic structure and social structure of our long-suffering state in favor of a "return to socialism"; then ... then ... then not to make more such mistakes ... and destructive man-made cataclysms, which were enthusiastically accepted by the majority of the "population" of the USSR ... in the "era of Gorbachev" ... - So they took it and bought it and they began to dance to the lousy cheap pipe of the newly-made "Gamelin Pied Piper" ...
    - Eh, who will give Russia now ... - this "second chance" ...
    - With regard to China; then it is China that will be the very first who will not allow Russia to strengthen again and gain strength and powerful influence again ... - China does not need a mighty socialist Russia at all ... - Well, the Americans, of course, will make every effort to spread rot on Russia ...
    - And the United States is more likely to embark on the path of socialist development than Russia ... - And today Russia has simply cut off all paths to this ...
    - My plus for the author ...
  2. steelmaker Offline steelmaker
    steelmaker 10 July 2021 10: 38
    -2
    ... You will see more portraits of Stalin in China than in Russia. Why? Because the Chinese remember, if it were not for Stalin, there would be no USSR, there would be no USSR, there would be no China. This is the main truth for them! And here you think, it doesn't matter that thanks to Stalin there is a state, it can be thrown away. How civilized peoples view their history, learn from China. They didn’t forgive Mao, but they didn’t trample their story in the mud. And that's why today China is like that. China is a communist state, which is becoming the strongest, most developed, most advanced in the world. And no one will stop him, with the communist ideology!

    Jacob Kedmi.
  3. Oleg Rambover Offline Oleg Rambover
    Oleg Rambover (Oleg Pitersky) 10 July 2021 13: 45
    -1
    And all because the reforms carried out there turned out to be really sensible and sensible transformations, and not mindless attempts to break to the ground everything that was accumulated over the previous decades, replacing state and national interests with the “invisible hand of the market”.

    The secret of the Chinese miracle is pretty simple. In addition to the low start effect (an industrialized country was made from an agrarian country), the main secret is the rejection of communist dogmas in the economy. Mao turns over in his grave, knowing that the CCP has dollar billionaires. For Stalin and Mao, the leadership of China, beginning with Deng Xiaoping, are opportunists. They built wild capitalism under red flags.

    A complete victory over poverty, the highest social standards, enormous geopolitical ambitions, while in no way aimed at infringing the interests of other states and peoples - this is, in the most summary, what China has managed to achieve under the leadership of the Communist Party in a hundred years.

    Almost a quarter of China's population has an income of less than $ 5,5 per day (in the Russian Federation, 2,3% of the population). Moreover, the level of stratification of society is at the level of the United States (and the Russian Federation). Where the author saw the victory over poverty is unclear.
    In France and Belgium, 31% of GDP is spent on the social sphere, and in the USA - 26%, China - 6% (Russia - 12%). What "highest social standards" can we talk about at all? If you want to see what wild capitalism looks like in real life, you have to go to China.
    That "geopolitical ambitions not aimed at infringing on the interests of other states and peoples" is an oxymoron. It doesn't work that way. And the author would ask about the term tianxia and how the Chinese emperors treated the whole world.

    Could it be the same with our Motherland, if not for a number of events that led to 1991?

    No, it could not, but regardless of the age of 91 and personalities in power.
    1. Petr Vladimirovich (Peter) 10 July 2021 15: 06
      0
      Fly, dear Oleg to Hainan. There are excursions to Shanghai. Tell the Chinese how bad they are.
      Come back, share, throw pictures, we'll discuss ...
      fellow
      1. Oleg Rambover Offline Oleg Rambover
        Oleg Rambover (Oleg Pitersky) 10 July 2021 15: 25
        0
        The same can be advised to go to Moscow and judge the standard of living of all Russians by it.
        And the statistics are as follows:
        https://ru.xcv.wiki/wiki/List_of_countries_by_percentage_of_population_living_in_poverty
        1. Petr Vladimirovich (Peter) 10 July 2021 15: 34
          0
          Friendly advice to him, fly to a great resort, and I have shekels only for statistics.
          Well sit, it's not dusty
          1. Oleg Rambover Offline Oleg Rambover
            Oleg Rambover (Oleg Pitersky) 10 July 2021 15: 40
            +1
            Quote: Petr Vladimirovich
            and I have it only for statistics.

            What shekels for what statistics? Okay, let's write it off to your age.
            You will go to whatever Urumqi. Come back and share how well they live there with photos.
    2. Dukhskrepny Offline Dukhskrepny
      Dukhskrepny (Vasya) 10 July 2021 19: 02
      +2
      You measure China by the measure of the 80-90s You need to buy glasses and go to China The average salary in China is already about $ 1000. And the communists defeated poverty in China while your GDP was "lifting Russia off its knees"
      1. Oleg Rambover Offline Oleg Rambover
        Oleg Rambover (Oleg Pitersky) 11 July 2021 09: 40
        +2
        I already have glasses.
        https://ru.xcv.wiki/wiki/List_of_countries_by_percentage_of_population_living_in_poverty
        According to the World Bank, 24% of Chinese people live on less than $ 5.5 a day. There are certainly successes, but ask what the Chinese understand by the poverty line. And as in any autocracy, achievements by round dates are formed not only through real actions, but also through working with statistics.
        In any case, China has achieved these achievements thanks to the transition to a Western-style market economy.
  4. Jacques sekavar Offline Jacques sekavar
    Jacques sekavar (Jacques Sekavar) 10 July 2021 18: 56
    +2
    It is worth at least to try to think about why it happened exactly this way, and not otherwise, why today a good half of the population of the planet Earth looks with delight and envy at the handiwork of the Communist Party of China

    RF at least congratulated the Communist Party of China on its 100th anniversary, or is this their holiday for the RF, like all world capitalism, “a dark milestone in the history of mankind” despite the peace of friendship and strategic partnership?
    The modern history of building Socialism in a single country = China, began almost at the same time as Gorbachev's "perestroika".
    The starting positions were incomparable, and the vector of development was diametrically opposite - the decay of the USSR turned into clinical death, and the PRC, after the rehabilitation of Deng Xiaoping and the beginning of reforms, began not only to leave it, but to quickly recover and gain strength.
    The fact is that K. Marx and F. Engels spread capitalism on the shelves, but did not say a word where to start and how to build Socialism.
    This led to variability, distortion of the concept and essence of socialism.
    Socialism, in Lenin's understanding, is a transitional stage from capitalism to communism and, as a transitional one, it cannot but possess elements of two different social systems.
    Their understanding of the path and methods of building socialism is set out in the New Economic Policy, which actually saved the world's first proletarian state from death at the dawn of its existence, which was based on the dictatorship of the proletariat, state control of money circulation, lending, taxation, pricing, entrepreneurship and its spheres. activities (group B in the first place, with which the reforms of Deng Xiaoping began), purchase and sale - state capitalism under the control of the party of the proletariat made it possible to combine the interests of private owners and the state, provide powerful state support and encourage the development of capitalism, direct it for the good of the state and the people ... This is the essence of Lenin's NEP Policy and the greatest contribution to the development of the theory and practice of Marxism.
    Mikhail Gorbachev's reforms were of a fragmentary and unsystematic nature, more like an impromptu chess beginner in a tough time trouble, which ultimately led to opposition in the party, economic disorder, public discontent, and ended with a coup d'etat led by Yeltsin and the restoration of capitalism. the privatization of the former public property and its subsequent redistribution. In fact, Yeltsyn not only betrayed his comrades-in-arms, but made Hitler's dream come true - he destroyed the USSR, while losing about 20 million Russian population, which is comparable to the losses of the USSR in the Great Patriotic War. The merits of the man under whose leadership the USSR became the most literate country in the world, carried out industrialization, and the economy came to second in the world, withstood and won the war against the fascist non-reckoning, from the Ilch light bulb to nuclear power plants and space flights - were replaced by the merits of one of the his marshals. They erected a huge center for the leader of the 1991 coup d'etat on his estate, whose employees are trying to pass off black as white, not without outside assistance. Such a shameless distortion and distortion of history. In China, the stories are incomparably better, and it's understandable why.
  5. Dukhskrepny Offline Dukhskrepny
    Dukhskrepny (Vasya) 10 July 2021 19: 05
    +3
    From the joint statement of Mao Zedong and Enver Hoxha "On the birthday of I. V. Stalin" dated December 21.12.1964, XNUMX:

    the criminal actions of Khrushchev and his henchmen will have long-term consequences, they will lead to degeneration, and then to the destruction of the USSR and the CPSU ...
  6. Sergey Demin_2 Offline Sergey Demin_2
    Sergey Demin_2 (Sergey Dyomin) 10 July 2021 20: 09
    0
    The Communist Party of China was able to do what the USSR failed

    an incompetent journalist is immediately visible, study the history better before writing this
    the breakthrough of China is associated with Western technologies, money and the Western market for Chinese goods, and this became possible after the narrow-eyed became our enemies in the 70s and 80s, precisely for this, the attack on Damansky Island was needed to show the Americans that they are their own, as anti-Soviet hysteria at one time, our Chinese "brothers" delivered the largest number of weapons to the Mujahideen, I repeat more Americans.
    without the West, they are even now zero, they will cut off the supply of microcircuits, close the markets and that's it
  7. steelmaker Offline steelmaker
    steelmaker 10 July 2021 20: 24
    +2
    Dear. There are 4 of us here who have close views on the event in our history. Why then don't we support each other? This is how the country was ruined, because honest people with the right views decided that it was not their business to support each other. And zaputintsy, in this regard, are friendlier. In general, all of you are a plus from me, for the right thoughts.
  8. Vladest Offline Vladest
    Vladest (Vladimir) 10 July 2021 20: 31
    +1
    The Chinese can learn from the mistakes of others. What can not be said about the USSR and its successor, the Russian Federation.
  9. Nikolay Malyugin (Nikolai Malyugin) 12 July 2021 06: 25
    +1
    I don't know what would happen to the population of 1,5 billion in another country. Probably, like in India. The difference between the USSR and China is that in the USSR all development came from the top. China, not only has given part of the power to the lower classes, but also shared its fate with them. Of course, there are very rich people in China. But there is a strict record of state property. And for this violation of this is punished to the fullest extent of Chinese laws.
  10. trampoline instructor (Bazil Bazil) 13 July 2021 05: 39
    0
    In my opinion, it is generally incorrect to compare the USSR and the PRC, since they are incomparable quantities.
    There are too many initial differences, the historical path is too different.
    So this is all - pouring from empty to empty.