Whatever the year, on the eve of one of the most tragic dates of our history in some media and, especially on the Internet, the discussion on the topic: “But how could this have happened ?!” To our great regret, June 22, 1941 has been and remains a day for decades, around which almost the largest number of gossip, legends, dubious assumptions and absolutely crazy versions have been tricked.
But it’s high time to take a look at this day, and especially the events that preceded it, as impartially as possible, in order to at least try to weed out the seeds of truth, even if bitter, from the spitting of lies and fabrications.
About the origins of the myth
It just so happened that the colossal scale of the nationwide catastrophe that broke out on June 22, 1941, the endless horror of grief and disasters that befell the country, today "obscure" many details, without taking into account which to compose an objective picture of the events of that time, and, in particular, talk about their real prerequisites , is simply impossible. At the same time, during the Great Patriotic War, the terrible defeats of the first months of the war, the brutal collapse of the doctrine "to beat the enemy with little blood on its territory", had to be explained somehow - as to those who themselves found themselves in the thick of the bloody meat grinder of the nightmare summer of 41, so also to those who still had to take up arms and go to meet the enemy. To explain all the nuances and complexities of the situation (many of which belonged to the category of state secrets of the highest rank) to these people, for the most part, simple, ingenuous and far from the complex and intricate subtleties of militarypolitical intrigue, it was completely unacceptable and, in addition, useless. Hence, a simple and direct explanation, like a bayonet to a Mosin rifle, was born: "The enemy insidiously struck a blow to our peaceful country, which was not going to fight with anyone, and therefore the losses were so heavy - because of the surprise attack of the Nazis!"
Everyone somehow resigned themselves to such an explanation - all the more so that in the end, by the word and will of the Supreme Victory, it remained for us. However, the Twentieth Congress later struck, with which the vile orgy of anti-Stalinism began, and here the tragedy of June 22 fell on Khrushchev's lackeys very well. The great Leader who had gone to Eternity vied with each other for blaming him for “overslept”, “slapping” the Nazis and, in general, almost creating all the conditions for him with “mass repressions of the command staff” and “collapse of the army”. There were individuals who, in their schizophrenic zeal, came to the assertions that Hitler decided to go to war because Tukhachevsky and his comrades were leaning against the wall ...
After a while, with the end of the evil Khrushchevschina, the whistle dance with attempts to "hang" all the blame for June 22 against Stalin also subsided. Soviet historiography has actually returned to its original interpretation of "surprise." This turned out to be some kind of delusional split: on the one hand, in the USSR in the 40s everyone understood, they saw Nazism as an enemy, a clash with which was inevitable, they were preparing for war, they re-equipped the army, signed a pact with Ribbentrop in order to receive at least some postponements to prepare and push the borders to the West. On the other hand, in June 1941, an “unexpected and insidious attack”. In people who have at least some critical mentality, this caused an inevitable and severe cognitive dissonance. There was a feeling that immediately before the start of the Great Patriotic War, the leadership of the party, country, army and special services in the USSR was seized by some kind of collective madness or impotence. Which, however, then passed very quickly - otherwise we would never have won the war. And this does not happen ...
People who decide the fate of millions are either talented, or mediocre, or they know how to make the right decisions, or they are incapable of doing it. It turns out that until 1941 Stalin led the country to the future Victory with an iron hand. Then he "failed", and then again returned to his normal state - a great strategist and politician. Rave. However, during the years of unkind memory of "perestroika", the domestic liberal tribe returned again to the old song of the Bald Kukuruznik and his hangers-on, starting to blame Joseph Vissarionovich: he also "ruined intelligence" and "did not trust her", painting obscene messages on the reports resolution, and generally believed the Germans, like some, God forgive me, idiot. Then the possessed Rezun - "Suvorov" joined in and began to lie that Stalin was going to "take over Europe", but Hitler "outwitted" him - and that was all ... In the wretched heads of the liberoids there was "a solitaire", in their opinion, perfectly explaining everything. But these are not explanations, but bullshit.
Who will outstay whom, outwit whom
To a large extent, the fact that many of our compatriots took the shameful enemies of Rezun and his followers at face value was facilitated by mistakes made in the interpretation of the pre-war situation in Soviet times. Even, I would say, not mistakes, but quite conscious and gross fraud in this matter. Two things were instilled into all of us from the school bench: first, that the USSR was an exceptionally peace-loving country, only preparing for defense. Secondly, the fact that in addition to Hitlerite Germany and its “satellites” we had no enemies in Europe and the world. Solid future allies in the anti-Hitler coalition. But this does not correspond to the truth at all.
In order to put everything in its place, it is necessary to drop false prejudices and cliches, call a spade a spade. War for the USSR was absolutely inevitable - and starting from November 7, 1917. Or, if you like, from the autumn of 1922, which is considered the time of the end of the Civil War on our land. Adolf Schicklgruber wouldn’t get out of Munich’s pubs - he would have to fight with Poland, supported by Britain, France and the USA. Or with Japan, which would have had the same countries as allies. Am I talking nonsense ?! And who was going to get involved in the war with our country in 1940 on the side of Finland? Not the English with the French, who were already imposing plans for the bombing of Baku and amphibious landings? The capitalist countries, seeing the power of the USSR growing every year, were determined to destroy it. Hitler turned up - set him up: financial assistance, the Munich agreement, the lack of real action after the occupation of the Wehrmacht by Poland. Pitting Germany and Russia is the classic, favorite Anglo-Saxon geopolitical move. No - they would get down to business themselves.
The proof of Stalin's genius is that in 1941 our country found itself face to face with the military forces of Germany, Italy, Romania, Hungary and others, but still not with the combined armed forces of ALL Europe. Concluding the Non-Aggression Pact in 1939, Joseph Vissarionovich achieved what seemed impossible - he "turned" Hitler to the West, at the same time that London and Paris were pushing the Nazis to the East with all their might. But his undoubted mistake was that the consequences of this reversal were calculated incorrectly. Stalin quite reasonably hoped that the Wehrmacht, even if it was locked on our borders, would be at least two or three years later, pretty battered by battles with millions of European armies. And, perhaps, it will not even come to this at all - and even then the Red Liberation Army will put an end to this war, having finished what remains of the Nazi thugs and bringing freedom to the peoples occupied by them. So in the end did it happen? And what bad plan was that?
Yes ingenious! What the Supreme could not predict at all was that the “resistance” of German aggression would last in Europe for several hours, for several days, and for weeks. That the Nazis, replenished their arsenals with unused weapons against them, and the ranks with legions and entire divisions of foreign volunteers eager to participate in the "fight against Bolshevism", will come to us so early and even stronger than they were before 1940, and not bloodless and weakened . Well, what can you do - such a ridiculous and "shameful" war "that Hitler received in the West instead of the alleged bloody bath, the future author of the order" Not a Step Back! " I was simply not able to imagine. That is his whole mistake. Hitler did not predict on May 9, 1945 because he measured the Russians across Europeans. Stalin did not predict June 22, 1941 because he measured the Europeans in Russian ...
The pendulum is swinging ...
Those who are trying to argue that the military-political situation in Europe in 1941 was "unambiguous" either do not understand what they are talking about or lie deliberately. The war machine of the Third Reich could well move both East and West. On the one hand, Hitler’s remarks are widely known that before “sorting out” the USSR, it is necessary to “solve affairs” with Britain. On the other hand, all sane leaders in the USSR, including Stalin, remembered very well how in 1940 the Wehrmacht released from the seemingly deadly trap of Dunkirk more than three hundred thousand British, French and Belgians. Someone to this day is trying to talk about the "turbidity" or "eclipse" that suddenly found itself on the Führer, but the matter, of course, was different - Hitler made it clear to the British that he would prefer not to fight them to death.
Was the military alliance of Britain and Germany directed against the USSR impossible in 1941? And then why on the spot then on May 10 of this year in Scotland did Rudolf Hess, one of the most prominent figures of the Nazi party and the Third Reich, land? Why did the NKVD foreign intelligence record negotiations between the Germans and the British, secretly conducted in Stockholm and Spain? Everything could be, and London, like no other capital, was at that moment interested in the German attack on the USSR - for him it was a matter of survival. It was in such an environment that decisions were made and chances were evaluated. Did the Soviet secret services not see the danger? Yes, the letter-case "Zateya" for controlling the military threat emanating from the Third Reich was initiated by the NKVD intelligence at the end of 1940! And they worked on it with all zeal, you can rest assured.
Moreover - Stalin with all his might again tried to "deploy" the future enemy to the West! Through all possible channels, information on strengthening the Red Army, the USSR military industry, and its defense potential was intensely "merged" into Berlin. Hitler was warned: "Do not meddle, burn yourself!" It got to the point that the German military attaché in the Soviet Union was kindly organized an extremely informative “tour” of the enterprises of the military-industrial complex, including the ones where the latest models of tanks and combat aircraft were produced. Absurd stupidity? No, the desire to prevent war at all costs. And by the way, this worked: the final decision on the attack on the USSR by Hitler was made, according to various sources, either 10, or even June 14, 1941. “Wait,” you say, “what about the Barbarossa plan that the Führer presented back in 1940 ?!” Well, you never know what they presented to him ... The development of detailed plans for conducting military operations against neighboring (and not only) states is exactly what the high ranks of the General Staff of any army of the world are supposed to do tirelessly.
Similar plans in Europe at one time had any self-respecting country. And practically - everyone is against everyone. To compose something like a “di irst column of marshiert” is one thing, and to give an order for an offensive is somewhat different. And far from everyone in the leadership of the Third Reich, both military and political, shared Hitler’s enthusiasm for the Eastern Campaign. People knew perfectly well that in the event of protracted military operations with the USSR, Germany would lose them inevitably (as it happened in the end). And only Corporal Schicklgruber, after brilliant blitzkriegs in the West, tightly got into his head that the Soviet Union was a “colossus with feet of clay” that would collapse under the very first blows of the “victorious Wehrmacht” and that the war would be over before the fall.
Abyss Spy Games
When today someone writes that “intelligence reports were lying in packs on Stalin’s table”, in which the day and almost an hour of the German attack on the USSR were exactly indicated, they are silent about one thing. The fact that at the other end of the Leader’s table lay, at least, the same thickness of a pile of undercover messages and reports, the authors of which claimed that there would be no invasion in any case - at least this year! And there were also a dozen and a half “exact dates” for the start of the war ... In addition to the “Zatea,” there was also the lettering “Black Bertha,” which carefully recorded all the efforts made by Britain and the USA to “push their heads together” as soon as possible USSR and Germany. Stalin is often reproached for almost “massacre”, which was arranged in foreign intelligence just before the Great Patriotic War. Yes, there were “purges”. However, those who complain about them, claiming that “the best reconnaissance personnel were destroyed”, for some reason do not mention what kind of personnel they were and that they had time to “work out” by that time.
The anger of the Leader fell upon Soviet intelligence after its representatives (for the most part, immigrants from the brainchild of Trotsky-the Comintern) committed not only a series of gross failures, but also a considerable number of betrayals were committed. Voluntary passage to the enemy’s side of such aces of the secret war as Alexander Orlov, Ignatius Reis, Walter Krivitsky, and at the same time high-ranking NKVD rank German Lyushkov, not only convincingly showed that not everything was successful in reconnaissance, but also dealt a severe blow to the activities of this structure . The payoff for the life of a scout who surrendered to the enemy is always served by the secrets of his colleagues' activities known to him - lists of agents, codes, codes, secret paths for "illegal immigrants" and the like. Yes, after surrendering all this to the defectors, neither Beria nor Stalin, in fact, could at all trust any of the representatives of the overseas residencies! Nobody could vouch that they were no longer taken under full control and did not drive the perfect “disu” to the Center.
Everything had to be checked, rechecked - and a hundred times, to establish again. The fact that Vladimir Dekanozov and Amayak Kobulov were in Berlin on the eve of World War II, one of the few people whom Lavrenty Pavlovich could completely trust, is not surprising. They also often utter completely unfounded accusations and reproaches - “slammed”, they say. Especially some "clever men" are sophisticated about Kobulov - he supposedly had "no experience," and behaved in Berlin "inappropriately," and "chatted too much." And most importantly, he sent Stalin the misinformation that the agent supplied him with, which was the "decoy duck" of the Gestapo. There is only one objection to this - if Kobulov and Dekanozov had at least a small fraction of real blame for June 22, they would have simply been executed upon their return to the USSR. However, nothing like this happened - Kobulov turned out to be the People's Commissar of Internal Affairs in Uzbekistan, then was returned to Moscow to rather big posts, Dekanozov did not have a great career, however, he was not repressed. The Khrushchev gang dealt with both in the terrible 1953, as with Beria’s comrades-in-arms.
Regarding Kobulov again, serious researchers suggest that his actions in Berlin in 1941 were part of some very large and complex game that was personally played by Beria and Stalin, and his “talkativeness” was no more than another channel “ plum ”the information they need. However, now it is hardly possible to establish the truth. But one can at least refute the most ridiculous rumors - like the one that Stalin and Beria personally imposed on the reports of scouts warning about the war, resolutions in which through the word there was selective swearing or proposals "to erase into gallery dust." As far as I know, the Leader’s written obscene resolutions have not been preserved at all (I’ll ask you not to offer explicit fakes!), This also applies to Lavrenty Pavlovich. No, both fully possessed the "sacred" depths of the great Russian language and put them into practice. But to write matyuki on documents, like a schoolboy on a fence? Wrong people. As for the "camp dust" ... It touches when gentlemen liberals try to attribute to their characters they hate not only their wretched "thinking", but also their own vocabulary.
In the spring and summer of 1941, a super-intense intelligence war was fought, in which both perfectly prepared misinformation and provocations, various kinds of ingenious combinations, many of which were prepared for years, were used! I will recall to the doubters about the so-called "Mechelen incident", during which in 1940 in the hands of the Belgians "suddenly" was a detailed operational plan of the Wehrmacht’s Western campaign. The Allies breathed a sigh of relief - this is exactly what they expected. That's just the Germans hit in a completely different way. Some people believe that the loss of "secret documents" just forced Hitler to accept Manstein’s proposals, the implementation of which led to the instant defeat of Belgium, Holland, France and the British expeditionary force. I think it was a little different - the Germans deliberately slipped the “bullshit” to the enemy, and he pecked at it. So could a year later, Stalin believe each of the reports received - especially in light of the fact that half of them contradicted one another? Preparations for the war were carried out, moreover, consistently and more intensively.
It has long been proven - an order from Moscow to deploy troops in combat formations did not even go to the okrugs on June 20-21, but even earlier. Another thing is that in some places he was ignored, and in some cases intentionally. On June 22, 1941, I wrote in great detail about the topic of betrayal in the highest military echelons of the Red Army ... On June 17, 1941, nobody prevented the Navy Commander-in-Chief Admiral Kuznetsov from bringing the fleet into full combat readiness. As for the NKVD, one of the few sources that I personally believe to be reliable in this matter is Pavel Sudoplatov, who did not sing to Stalin and Beria but never drenched them with mud. According to his recollections, he received an order from Lavrenty Pavlovich to prepare saboteurs for action in the conditions of war, on June 1941. The transfer of troops from Siberia to the western borders of the USSR began in the spring of XNUMX. The failures of the Red Army and the bloody battles of XNUMX were not due to the fact that someone “overslept” something, but to completely different moments. But this is a slightly different topic ...