To Arkady Petrovich Gaidar, whose 116th birthday passed on January 22 of this year, the formula is most fully applicable: the more infamous this or that domestic figure of the Soviet era was harassed by the possessed adherents of "perestroika", the more liberals today reproach him with more fury. the brighter and brighter his personality was in reality, the more he did for his homeland. In this case, it does not matter if it is policy, commander or writer - since cramps start to beat the “democratic public” on his behalf, it means that the person was worthy.
As for Gaidar, his fate was unique even for his enchanting time: in the incomplete 37 years that were released to him, he managed to become the hero of two wars, one of the most popular writers far from poor in the literary talents of the USSR. And also - the founder of the social movement, which had no equal in mass and I’m not afraid of such a statement, which largely influenced the course of the Great Patriotic War. Did you not know? Well, now I’ll tell you ...
Man with a blood war
For all centuries, among us there are people born for the war and carrying it, as they say, in their blood. Arkasha Golikov was the son of people of the most peaceful profession — teachers, but here you go! The first time he “pulled a war” in 1914, on the German Front. It was at that time that the First World Kid who was tearing into a meat grinder, as you can easily calculate, was only 10 years old. Well, it’s clear - they took off a train a hundred miles from Arzamas, where the Golikovs lived then, but returned them to their father’s shelter under a reliable escort. There were a lot of them then, snotty “volunteers” ... But no one could prevent the future writer from diving headlong into the bloody whirlpool of Civilian just four years later. From the age of 14 in battles - it was cool even for those damned days. And yet, Gaidar finds himself precisely in the whirlwinds of cavalry and bayonet attacks, the heart-rending “Give!”, Gunpowder smoke and the roar of battles. It should be clarified right away: the white phrase of many of my peers, the Soviet-era children, was reproached with the phrase: “Gaidar, at the age of 14, commanded a regiment, and you ...” (hereinafter there was a list of sins and failures, indicating complete failure in comparison with Arkady Petrovich ), the truth does not correspond fully. He became a regimental commander at an older age - at 17 years old. However, does this diminish at least to some extent the enchantment of the military career of a boy from Arzamas: for 3 years from an ordinary to a regiment ?! At the same time, for the first time, perhaps, Gaidar’s fantastic ability to succeed in everything, whatever he undertook, was actually manifested by his own efforts, without a correct and comprehensive education. Subsequently, this will manifest itself in journalism, writing, pedagogy - nothing was taught to Arkady Petrovich. He was just a nugget talent.
However, it was precisely the military business that Gaidar studied most consistently and deeply in his life. First - the 7th infantry training courses for the Red Army command staff in Moscow, subsequently the same courses, only at number 6, named after Podvoisky and deployed in Kiev. At the same time, it was impossible to unlearn normal anywhere - the country was torn to pieces by interventionists, White Guards, riots and conspiracies. From the Kiev courses, Gaidar "breaks down" to suppress one of them as part of the consolidated cadet company OSNAZ, returns, receives a certificate and becomes a company commander. Further - further studies in Moscow, at the famous courses "Shot", which he just ends up in the department of regiment commanders. All these “education” and “careers” were, in fact, pauses in fierce battles on the Petlyurov, Polish, Crimean fronts. In 1919, Gaidar in one of the battles received a severe shell shock, accompanied by the same fall from the horse at full gallop. This injury actually broke his health, "rewarding" for the rest of his life the unbearable, excruciating pains with which he waged a real war until the end of his days. By the way, even then, another feature of Gaidar manifested itself - he categorically did not accept any opportunities to "sit out" in warm and safe positions. Almost immediately after enrolling him in the Red Army, the chief of protection and defense of all railways Efimov chose a young and lively guy to be his aide. It would seem that service is a dream: in warmth, satiety and with great bosses. That's just not for Gaidar. This one saw himself exclusively at the front line, where he got with amazing constancy - even from a reserve regiment, even from a cadet bench. Subsequently, being a long time ago commissioned and declared unfit for service due to health reasons, Gaidar will likewise tear his veins in order to get to the front of the Great Patriotic War. And he will achieve his goal, as always. However, let's not get ahead of ourselves.
“Khaidar-Golik” - terror, which was not
A special episode of Gaidar’s military career (which also became its ending) was his service in Khakassia as the commander of special forces units (CHON). These units caused panic in all the enemies of the Republic of Soviets that were not yet finished in 1922. Mainly - to bandits of all stripes and their, in modern terms, “field commanders”. Gaidar was considered an extremely tough and sharp leader even among this fraternity, which was far from pigeon meek. It is from the Khakass period that ugly rumors and gossip about him allegedly "brutal cruelty", "boundlessness" and "butchery" stretch to this day. Well - we will deal with this lie in as much detail as possible. First of all, we need to figure out where the “legs grow” from. That is - from where, in general, numerous "whistleblowers" and "whistleblowers" of Gaidar draw chilling "horror stories" about a young commander who allegedly was rushing along the hills with a bloodied saber in one hand and smoking steaming gun in the other, and who was looking for someone else to shoot "completely never"? The first “reliable source" they try to present to us is supposedly available "evidence of local residents." Well, what is the degree of their certainty, we will now easily find out. Here is a specific example: one literary lady from Krasnoyarsk, who subsequently disseminated a hefty libel about Gaidar, stated that she supposedly "personally went to Khakassia" and questioned there "local grandmothers who remembered for certain the Gaidar atrocities." And that was in the 90s ... Let's calculate how much these “grandmothers” should have been in the 22nd so that they really remember something. At least 7-10 years. So at what age, and, accordingly, at what stages of senile sclerosis and senility, most likely, were these "witnesses" at the time of conversations with the "investigator" ?! Yes, they could easily tell her about the landing of Martians!
Here everyone can calculate independently, and I will say that this kind of “evidence” is worthless. In addition, everyone who starts broadcasting about the "crimes" of the writer, for some reason, can not name the specific names of the victims or witnesses of such, nor the places, nor the dates of their commission. I tried to "push" something there in due time, Soloukhin, but only with this gentleman of the Order of the Red Banner of Labor, who later turned into perestroika, frowning anti-communists and ardent monarchists, forgive me, no one, like everyone else like him. However, perhaps the absolute “record” here was set by the dissident “historian” Burovsky, who put forward the version that Golikova at age 14 “had hidden her mother in the army because he had already managed to kill someone in Arzamas”! It’s not even nonsense, there’s no name for it at all, not even a medical one. However, the above-mentioned public also has another, supposedly “lethal” argument: certain documents from the GPU archives “convicting” Gaidar, at least in excess of authority and unjustified cruelty. This is a bit more complicated. Arkady Petrovich really had a conflict with the “organs”. And he ended up trying to “sew” a strong business on him. That's just the most interesting thing here - the cause of the conflict. And it consisted of the fact that the young commander of the CHON, who arrived at the new duty station, was convinced with great surprise that the local comrades from the “office”, obliged to fight, including banditry, did not have operational positions at all! Well, and, as usual, he got down to business himself. So all the “cruelties”, like with the aspiration of the described “locking in the bathhouse of the locals who were promised to be shot in the morning”, were nothing more than recruiting the agents needed, like air, carried out, so to speak, by express methods. From the bathhouse or the cellar, those planted there went out already by CHON informants. Cruel ?! So it was a war, not a paintball match! And if you think that the refined nobles from the White movement (not to mention the various chieftains) acted by some other methods, then you are mistaken in the most cruel way.
"You can’t write off your conscience ..."
Arkady Petrovich was indeed demobilized from the army in 1922. However, it wasn’t in any way “for atrocities”, although attempts to bring him almost to be shot by the GPU staff were quite specific, but due to their health condition with a diagnosis of “traumatic neurosis”. The injuries suffered by the illnesses (including typhus) were affected, it was said that, in fact, the green boy from the family of intellectuals spent 4 years in the epicenter of the hell of the Great Troubles ... Before judging Arkady Gaidar for the subsequent for this binge, wandering in psychiatric clinics, the most severe breakdowns and suicide attempts, try to answer the question: “What would happen to you after everything that happened to him?” Only honestly, please. Psychologists and specialists on the relief of combat psychological trauma then did not exist close. They were replaced by vodka. And, by the way, about the “psychiatric hospitals" - in those days they only took "a head to treat" in these institutions. And Gaidar suffered just from the wildest headaches. Be that as it may, he does not get drunk, does not fall, does not take his own life, repeating the fate of many much more famous heroes of the Civil. Without finishing any universities, Arkady Petrovich becomes a journalist, and not in the capital, but in the Far East. He worked for the longest time in the Pacific Star newspaper until 1932. After this, literary fame comes to Gaidar, who began to publish his stories since 1925. By the way, regarding his pseudonym, which appeared all the same in 1925 ... The fact that this is the misguided Khakass "Haidar" - "where?", Which was met by the "terrible commander of the CHON" by the locals frightened by him, is, again, a fiction crazy Soloukhin and company. The writer’s son repeatedly denied these nonsense, pointing to a completely different origin of the name, which entered the classics of Soviet children's literature. "School", "R.V.S.", "Military Secret", "The Fate of the Drummer" and others - how many generations of true patriots, unwavering and fearless defenders of the Motherland grew up on them? The main book of Gaidar - “Timur and his team” deserves a separate discussion.
The beginning of the Great Patriotic War, Gaidar met as something long awaited. In all his books, the theme of imminent impending battles took place, as critics wrote at that time, as a “red thread”. Someone from the writer's fraternity fumbled, raking up what had been acquired for the evacuation, and Gaidar was only worried about one thing: as if to be at the front as soon as possible. Only 37 years old - and a "white ticket" that closes the road to war. But it was Gaidar, and he did not give up. Here is a quote from an authentic document of those years, an appeal from the USSR Writers' Union to the Krasnogvardeisky District Military Commissariat of Moscow:
Comrade Gaidar (Golikov) Arkady Petrovich - an order bearer, a talented writer, a participant in the civil war, a former regiment commander who was exempted from military registration due to illness, currently feels quite healthy and wants to be used in the army. The party bureau and the defense commission of the Union of Soviet Writers supports the request of Comrade Gaidar (Golikov) to send him to the medical commission for re-examination ...
The commission rested tightly: “What the hell is the front ?! You are already miraculously alive! ” Well, okay ... On July 19, 1941, the correspondent of the newspaper Komsomolskaya Pravda Arkady Gaidar left for the army. The destination is the South-Western Front, Kiev, around which a ring of hostile encirclement has already closed.
Notes by notes (and Arkady Petrovich sent them to the editorial office regularly), but he also climbed into the thick of it! I went with scouts for “languages”, rose in attacks with a rifle company, and then was terribly proud of the captured MP obtained in battle. He was again in his place - in the war, he was happy again. About Gaidar who wrote about the writers and other artists who left for the rear, he said: “In vain they think that the war will write it to them. You can write off worn boots, an old cannon, but you can’t write off your conscience! ” When it became clear that Kiev could no longer be held, Arkady Petrovich flatly refused to evacuate (not the first, by the way, time!), Rejecting even his proposed seat in a plane flying to Moscow. His conscience and courage were not subject to cancellation ...
Gaidar made his way out of the encirclement with units of the 37th Army, almost doomed to death. He walked along the crossroads of the Kiev-Kharkov highway, which turned into a shooting gallery for Hitler’s vultures in those bad days, with impunity “ironing” the crowds of retreating soldiers and refugees who flowed along and along it, participated in night throws and desperate assaults. He was among those few who escaped - because the war was his element. The machine gunner of the partisan detachment operating in the Kanev region, Arkady Gaidar, died on October 26, 1941, having committed an absolutely deliberate act: only he managed to get in the way of those who were going to cross the railroad track of the Fritz partisans. A warrior to the marrow of the bone, possessing excellent training and dexterity, he could have managed to jump off the line of fire. Instead, straightening up to his full height, Gaidar shouted “Guys, the Germans are here!” The lineup from MG put a lead on everything: life, love, new books ... 37 years old! The remaining members of the detachment, who were walking with him, were saved. At least two of them survived the war. However, there is one more thing. Speaking about the contribution of Arkady Gaidar to the great Victory, in no case should one confine oneself to his personal feat, the number of invaders destroyed by him and his front-line correspondence that inspired the battle. The number of Soviet children and adolescents who showed unparalleled courage and patriotism during the years of the Great Patriotic War, which went down in history under the general name “pioneer heroes”, alas, cannot be accurately accounted for. Too many of them died, unknown to us. However, even if we are only talking about those whose heroism was marked by government awards, the bill goes to tens of thousands! Zina Portnova, Marat Kazei, Valya Kotik, Lenya Golikov ... And hundreds of thousands of other little heroes of the Great War - all of them were, in fact, “pupils” of Arkady Gaidar.
The half-joking nickname "All-Union Counselor" was given to him by Samuel Marshak, after the most powerful Timurov movement had unfolded throughout the Soviet Union. Without any pedagogical education, Gaidar in one of his trilogies (“Timur and his team”, “Commandant of the Snow Fortress” and “Oath of Timur”, the last two works of which existed exclusively in the form of a film story and script), did something that is often beyond the power powerful state organizations with millions of budgets. The first Timurov detachment arose in 1940 in Klin, near Moscow (where the story was written), and a year later the number of Timurovites in the USSR was already millions! When the war broke out, it was these boys and girls who replaced the adults who had gone to the front. Moreover, according to many historians, it was precisely Gaidar’s example in his story of the self-organization of adolescents without the participation of adults that spawned a mass of partisan detachments and underground cells, where the oldest fighters were 14-15 years old. Kibalchys of the Great Patriotic War, proudly spitting in the face of the Nazi executioners, are yesterday’s Timurovs forged by the fiery word of Gaidar. Personally, it amazes me to the depths of my soul that 753 Timurov detachments, which included 12 thousand people, were active in besieged Leningrad! Every day, children who froze and starved about, under enemy shelling and bombing, were in a hurry every day to help the families of war veterans, the elderly, those who could no longer collect fuel on their own or get food on cards. I just have no words to convey the depth of admiration for these boys and girls. This is not even heroism, but something even higher. In 1942, the first All-Union rallies of the Timurites were held, the movement expanded and strengthened, becoming an increasingly important aid for the front and rear. Young pupils of the “All-Union counselor”, not sparing themselves, worked in factories, on collective farms, in hospitals, fought and partisan. They forged the great Victory and the contribution of the Timurovites to its achievement cannot be overestimated.
For his life and heroic death, Arkady Petrovich Gaidar is worthy of our eternal memory and eternal glory. It is gratifying to know that his cause did not die - Timurov detachments still exist in Russia. And as for those who tried and are trying to defame his honest name ... So after all, the presence of bad guys on our land who are ready to sell their homeland for a barrel of jam and a basket of cookies, but for being “recorded in the bourgeoisie,” Gaidar also predicted - which once again confirms his writing talent.