Last week, quietly and imperceptibly passed the birthday of one of those people who can rightfully be considered a cohort of the brightest personalities who, during their lifetime, became personified symbols of the brilliant and great Stalin era. January 3 marks the 114th anniversary of Alexei Stakhanov, the legendary record miner.
In it, where, like a difficult life, there were enchanting take-off from the very “bottom”, and completely undeserved opal and oblivion, which ended with a triumphant return from nonexistence. In addition to purely personal motives (I will tell you about them for sure), another extremely curious fact made me study and analyze his biography in the most detailed way. From a certain moment, I realized: around this man, domestic "liberal-whistleblowers" from the announced "perestroika" party heaped up a fantastic amount of the most vile lies!
A simple miner from the Donbass, who in his life had not the slightest relation to either “organs” or “repressions”, was only a little less hated by them than Lavrenty Beria and his stern subordinates, who defended the Homeland from internal and external enemies with their breasts. So what? And, after all, how much truth is that “everyone knows” about his feat, life and death?
"A record that was not"?
We begin, of course, with the doubts to which the throaty and "all-knowing" liberal public periodically exposes the very fact of the slaughter of the Central-Irmino mine by Alexei Stakhanov on the night of August 30–31, 1935, of his famous record. Having descended underground with two assistants, for a shift lasting 5 hours 45 minutes, he mined 102 tons of coal. At the same time, the shift rate per one miner at that time was 7 tons. Accordingly, it was blocked by 14 and a half times! This was a record not only of the All-Union, but of the world level. Here, in fact, is the truth in a very brief summary. Further, as usual, fantasies begin. Like, the amount of coal mined by Stakhanov should be divided by at least three. Since, of course, he cut anthracite offensively, but he would never have been able to cope with the task if the two miners present there had not “raked” it. Well, what can I say? It’s easy, of course, to judge things in which you can't understand a damn thing. The problem in this case is that when cutting coal with ledges (that is how Stakhanov worked during that historical shift), he pours himself down - nothing is needed to row at all. Yes, no one disputes the role of Gavrila Shchigolev and Tikhon Borisenko who participated in the record. But they were not slaughterers, but fastlers! The innovative method, proposed and implemented by Stakhanov, consisted precisely in a simple, seemingly, idea: one who is busy, so to speak, “in the main process” should not periodically set aside the jackhammer to set the next a wooden support that does not allow tons of earth and stone to collapse on the poor miner's head! Everyone is doing his job and the job is arguing.
By the way, in addition to this trinity, who had been engaged in truly hellish labor for almost six hours in the face, there were also representatives of the mine leadership - the head of the site Nikolay Mashurov and Konstantin Petrov, secretary of the party organization of the mine. And even a representative of a large-circulation newspaper. Will we also fasten them to 102 tons? They just did not bother much, but, as expected, recorded the fact of a heroic labor achievement, and most importantly, that everything was without deception. With a heavy jackhammer, beating in his hands and "spitting" a cloud of coal dust raising a cloud of compressed air, all this time Stakhanov was operating. It should be noted that he completed the slaughtering courses in the same 1935. The unprecedented, previously considered unattainable, success was facilitated by his exceptional physical strength with endurance and an innate skill, which the miners call the “sense of coal”, which allows them to drill in the optimal direction without risking to collapse a hefty piece of the seam. And also - colossal enthusiasm, the desire to prove to everyone that for the Soviet person there is nothing impossible. Stakhanov was not deprived of healthy ambition, helping to work miracles - when, after a few days, his result (up to 114 tons) was blocked by the slaughterer Mikhail Dyukanov from the same mine, Aleksey “tensed up” and after a couple of weeks he delivered 227 tons Anthracite per shift! The record was definitely! Not without reason, a couple of months later, a photograph of its author appeared not somewhere, but on the cover of Time magazine, which could not be declared a facet of Stalinist propaganda with all its desire. Yes, yes - not Zuckerberg, not Bush, and not even Gorbachev, but a simple (then still) miner from the Donbass ...
Name changed by Stalin
With the main facts sorted out. We now turn to the most complete fabulous. One of the main and most, I am not afraid of this word, idiotic legends that accompany Stakhanov today is the invention that has been very persistently circulated in the press and in “historical studies”, that he was, in fact, not any Alexei , being even Andrei at all. The name we were used to was allegedly mistakenly printed in the Pravda newspaper, which reported the record, and the very next day the miner was handed a brand new passport, where it was written, issued by the personal command of comrade Stalin himself. You can’t imagine anything funnier ... Not only did this bogatin repeatedly refute Stakhanov’s own daughter - Violetta ... A miserable fable contradicts all the realities of that time and elementary facts. First of all, in the tiny article “Stakhanov’s slayer record”, published in Pravda on September 4, 1935, his name is not mentioned at all! So it is written: “Comrade Stakhanov. " Normal practice of the time. Moreover - for Joseph Vissarionovich this miner, even after his outstanding, but single accomplishment, was, excuse me, nobody. One of the very appreciated by the Leader of the "cogs" of the indestructible machine he created under the name of the USSR. That Stalin had no other concern, how to change his passport! It’s necessary to understand that Stakhanov’s name has turned into a symbol, in modern language, into a brand after its initiative in the Soviet Union has gained hundreds, thousands, tens of thousands of followers. When the Stakhanov movement rose and took place in the country, which gave a powerful impetus to its development - not only in coal mines, but also in industry, transport, agriculture and even trade!
And then - yes ... It was after all this that the miner who managed to raise such a “wave” became a figure worthy of attention, sincere respect and all-out personal support of Stalin. All mechanisms of the USSR worked in that era without a hitch, extremely quickly and clearly - the first All-Union meeting of the Stakhanovites took place in Moscow on November 14, 1935. And - yes, Joseph Vissarionovich took a personal part in it. It was in the speech that concluded this event that the Leader uttered his words, which immediately became winged: “Life has become better, comrades. Life has become more fun. And when it’s fun, the work is argued ... If we had a bad, ugly, sad life, we wouldn’t have any Stakhanov movement. ” Everything else - well-deserved honors, admission to the ranks of the CPSU (b) without a seniority (at that time, believe me, it was worth a lot), orders, an apartment in Moscow, and other material benefits came later. Here, by the way, about the awards. Some “alternative geniuses” are trying to argue that “the Stalinist regime did not value Stakhanov” by awarding him “just something” with the Order of Lenin. The miserable simply do not know that the title of Hero of Socialist Labor appeared in the USSR only three years later, at the end of 1939. For past merits under Stalin was not awarded. No way - all the more. So the orders of Lenin and the Red Banner of Labor were more than a significant recognition of the merits of Stakhanov. How true are the versions of the o, allegedly personal, “face to face”, his conversations with the Leader and Stalin's seemingly “far-reaching plans” for him? Hard to tell. In any case, the young miner was given the opportunity for professional and career growth - in 1936 he entered the Industrial Academy, which he graduated from before the Great Patriotic War.
"I could not stand the glory"
“A separate block” among the “black” myths about Stakhanov is the endless and abominably dirty retelling of gossip about his supposedly endless partying in Moscow (“he got drunk to the point that he sowed a party card in a drunken brawl!”), Amorous adventures (age is discussed here with special relish the second wife of the champion) and the like. Well, of course - he left his wife, got along with the “youngster” ... According to the most plausible version of that situation, the first (civil) co-worker Stakhanova was a gypsy, and one fine day disappeared in an unknown direction along with another nomad camp, leaving her husband two children yes bright memory. The second really saw the hero for the first time when he spoke at her school, and, as they say, “ignited”. The situation, again normal for that time, was Stakhanov, according to the memoirs, a real handsome man, as they used to say, “a prominent man”. That's just they agreed much later. And on the other hand, the attempts of the current “moralists," for the most part, oh, how far in reality they are from the principles declared by them to delve into someone else’s underwear! Who cares how many women had! As Comrade Stalin said about this: “What are we going to do? We will envy ... ”But as for Stakhanov’s“ bitter drunkenness ”, it does not converge categorically. In fact, Joseph Vissarionovich was quite loyal to libation lovers. This is confirmed even by the history of the colleague and fellow countryman Stakhanov - People's Commissar of the coal industry Zasyadko. However, here we need to make an amendment: the Leader was condescending to those who knew how to drink, and not to complete drunks - “Zasyadko knows the measure!” From those who drowned in a glass both reason and conscience, the Stalinist system got rid of completely ruthlessly. As, however, from all those who were in the high and responsible posts entrusted to them for the country it is useless, if not harmful.
It is absolutely unbelievable that Stakhanov would first successfully graduate from the Promacademy, and then no less successfully hold leadership positions in the coal industry — from the head of large mines to the head of the socialist competition sector at the People’s Coal Commission USSR industry. A reliable fact - with the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, he persistently and repeatedly asked for the front in any rank and position. Do not let go. Some "wise men" on this occasion immediately issue: "the propaganda symbol was cherished in the rear, sending millions of others to death." No, how can I not quote Lavrov ?! Yes, the Supreme’s own children are not safe, not like some kind of “symbols”! A warring country needed coal like air. What steel without coal? What weapon? Specialists of the corresponding profile, especially managers, were worth their weight in gold. And Stakhanov goes to Karaganda, where, again, contrary to the fabrications of the spiteful critics, he doesn’t “ruin the work,” but by personal example inspires the miners of mine No. 31 he runs to fulfill the plan for 120, or even 200%, in the literal sense of the word without getting out of the ground. Posts, say? In the year 1942 ?! To a psychiatrist ... With all this, by the way, Alexey Grigoryevich also manages to graduate from the Moscow Mining Institute evacuated to the same Karaganda. After his departure for promotion to Moscow, to the People’s Commissariat, the mine deservedly gets the name "Stakhanovskaya". And what - does it look like the life and work of a chronic alcoholic or just a drunkard? That's just the same. Stakhanov’s career ended even not because of the “green serpent”, but because of a huge and popular disaster named Nikita Khrushchev. However, like many others.
The fact that the bald Kukuruznik, spared neither energy nor time, got rid of all the people of the Stalinist team, is well known. Most likely, Stakhanov no longer had a chance to stay on leadership work on an all-Union scale because of this. And he did not want to “expose the cult of personality” categorically. However, something else intervened. Maurice Thorez, the leader of the French Communists, who arrived in the USSR, to the great displeasure of Lysik, wanted to meet a living legend - a miner-record holder. Khrushchev issued this: "Yes, he has long been in the Donbass!" And then he called Stakhanov and began to teach him, thinking of blurt out: “You have to understand me as a miner miner ...” Alex Grigoryevich, who wasn’t mild-tempered, roared in response: “What kind of .... miner are you ?!” Surely he added something else from the very rich oral folklore of the Donbass miners. It is clear that after this his fate was predetermined. Survived - and that happiness. For some evil irony, Stakhanov was sent to the “exile” to the small town of Chistyakovo, later renamed ... Thorez! There he first held the post of deputy chief of a local coal trust, and then he was completely sent to work at one of the mines. Moreover, the bald insignificance forbade even the word "Stakhanovist", replacing it with the faceless "drummer"! As she put a rotten little soul ... Describing Stakhanov’s Torean life, his slanderers invariably begin to tell how he “rolled downhill”, began to drink too much, ““ started a new family again ”, and the like. At the same time, of course, the numerous memories of those who lived during this difficult time and worked side by side with the “demoted legend” are completely ignored. And for some reason they don’t have a word about Stakhanov’s supposedly “drunkenness!” But the memories that he, living not only in Spartan, but literally in miserable conditions, spared nothing for people.
Not being a deputy or an official, Aleksey Grigoryevich constantly participated in the organization of someone’s fate, helped someone, defended and instructed someone. And it turned out! Donbass Stakhanova remembered and honored, in spite of any prohibitions. Perhaps that is why he lived to the point where justice still triumphed. You can say anything about “dear Leonid Ilyich”, but the fact that he returned from oblivion many people who were disgraced only because they faithfully served their homeland under Stalin or subsequently refused to pour mud on the name of the Leader - his undoubted merit. In 1970, Stakhanov was nevertheless awarded the title of Hero of Socialist Labor that he deserved with his whole life. He was again in demand, his name again turned into a symbol of selfless work and the ability to work miracles with this work. Unfortunately, not for long. Those who exercise in denigrating Stakhanov’s memory were not ashamed to slander even his passing from life: they say that he died either in a mental hospital or in a local narcological clinic. He drank, in short ... Aleksey Grigoryevich suffered from multiple sclerosis over the years, and the department in which patients with such a diagnosis as brain vessels could be provided with qualified help was available only in a psychiatric hospital in little Torez. He was allocated a separate ward there with maximum comfort, but the old miner constantly escaped from it into the general - “to the people”, without whom he could not imagine his life. He died there ... Here, in fact, are all the “secrets” of Stakhanov, the whole truth about him. I well remember the grave of Alexei Grigoryevich - with a fence made of jackhammers driven into the ground and connected by a chain and a monument in the form of a mine head with a red star. Two steps away from her lies my own grandfather - the same Donbass miner who fully knew the greatness and hardships of that distant time. Everlasting memory!
I am sure that Stakhanov really provokes the burning hatred of the current liberals as a "symbol of Stalinism." But what does his life really symbolize? A simple guy, almost illiterate (three classes of the school) comes to the mine nobody. The limit of his desires is to save some money on a horse, which is necessary in the farm. And what does he get? The opportunity to become one of the first heroes of the country, an order bearer, the head of the all-Union scale! To do this, he needed to just work hard and with all his heart. Stakhanov is a symbol of true equality, great justice, incredible enthusiasm for the unique Stalinist era. Give all of yourself to your country, your business - and get what you could not even dream of. “The symbol and sacrifice of Stalinist propaganda,” write and speak today of him those wretched in spirit who simply cannot understand either his own feat, or the greatness and glory of the time-born Stakhanov and Stakhanovites.